Enset (ensete Ventricosum) plays a central role in the economic and socio cultural life of the majority people of southern part of Ethiopia. It appears frequently in the meals of most families, and people rely heavily on enset food when other subsistence crops fail. Enset is a multipurpose crop of which every part is thoroughly utilized, not only for food but also for several cultural applications. Enset provides substantially more calorie than cereal, estimates ranges from double to 20 times as much. The nutritional benefit of enset in the diet of the rural population has been widely recognized. However, substantial research and technological development has not been carried out in the enset growing areas in order to facilitate wider consumption. Therefore, the main focus of this research is to identify factors influencing enset production and, assess the main contribution of enset crop in enabling rural people to improve their livelihood security.
Livestock are vital component in crop-livestock production system, especially for the smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia. In the area, farmers keep different animals in traditional production system. However, their huge significance is not well weighed out and therefore less emphasis was given to improve the sector. This book describes the role of livestock and opportunities to improve the rural livelihood through the use of Livestock production: as power in the farming system, source of food and income. Besides, the necessity of supplementing crossbred cows with additional concentrate feed was seen. The book, hence, provides information for professionals, government bodies, investors and other individuals that may take steps on the development of the rural life through the use of improved livestock production.
This book gives a picture about changes in livelihood security of rural women, as they shift from agriculture to other occupations as a part of increasing urbanization. There are influences of spatial, temporal and occupational migration which brings in changes in livelihoods. Livelihood security is measured using the livelihood security index developed for the same. Livelihood security is defined in terms of food, Occupational/ financial, social,ecological,habitat,health,educational and Environmental security. There are positive and negative influences on each of these components. Study is using recall method to compare the livelihood security of the respondents over five year period.The study aimed to generate the database, which contains the major health problems, common diseases, food consumption pattern, nutritional status, value systems of the society and the general trend of crop and animal production in that area. This helped in analyzing the existing problems and will pave the way to find out the solutions for these problems
Kocho Biscuit is a product that is prepared from Enset ventricosum, Triticum vulgare and Vicia faba as a major raw materials. E. ventricosum is drought resistant, rich in starch and minerals which make it energy giving food, though the protein content is very low as 1.0 gram/100 gram of sample. Enriching the nutritional content by adding Vicia faba and wheat make the biscuit to be nutritious good for children as well for others to consumers. Scaling up the E. ventricosum is a good substitute of starch to industrial food processing, which gives an opportunity for investors to look forward. Kocho biscuit is rich in nutrition and can be used for the purpose of reducing malnutrition in the malnourished savior areas. Kocho biscuit production not only benefit the producer but also contributes to the ones country economic growth; utilization of the resources; source of income who work in the sector; contribute to the food security; and so many. Enset venticosum as a source of raw material for the industrial application in the coming future will be one of the successful business.
Bananas, legumes and cassava are key crops in the CEPGL region (covering Rwanda, Burundi and DRC) being major sources of food and revenue for smallholder farmers who comprise the bulk of the poor population. Despite its importance, the productivity of banana-legume and cassava-based systems is severely hampered by the use of inferior germplasm, crop diseases, poor agronomic practices, abiotic stress and institutional constraints leading to low yields. This has had severe negative impacts on the food and nutrition security of rural households, their livelihood outcomes and on the natural resource base. It is against this backdrop that the Belgian Directorate General for Development Cooperation approved funding for CIALCA, a Consortium comprising International Agricultural Research Centres; IITA, Bioversity International and CIAT, and their national research and development partners. CIALCA aims at improving livelihoods through enhancing incomes, health, and the natural resource base of smallholder farmers in Central Africa. This article presents the households’ livelihood baseline status as at 2006 in the mandate areas where CIALCA has been developing and testing interventions.
This book is on effect of sugarcane farming on food security and nutritional status in Nambale Division, Busia District. It is a summary of a study carried out by the author to determine agricultural and economic parameters that affect food supply and nutritional status in rural Kenya in order to assess the extent to which the country is committed to achieving the Millenium Development Goals. The objectives of the study were to describe the relationship between sugarcane farming, food security and nutritional status; and to find out the impact of sugarcane farming on food supply and nutritional status in the study area. The study found that there is competition between cash and food crop cultivation in Nambale division; secondly, there is little motivation for food crop production in Nambale division leading to household food insecurity and thirdly, the people of Nambale division are quietly suffering from malnutrition problems. The book recommends that the sugar industry should conscientiously take care of the needs of small-scale sugarcane farmers not only for their own welfare but also, the sustainability of cultivation of sugarcane for local sugar production.
This thesis work provides a clear insight about how Community Forestry (CF) could play major role in providing charcoal from the forest waste, especially 3D (Diseased, Decayed and Dried) trees. A study was carried out in 2002-2003 in one of the community forestry (Karnel CF of Patlekhet VDC) of Kavrepalanchowk district to assess the socioeconomic status of blacksmith families and the role and capacity of community forestry in enhancing blacksmiths’ profession by providing charcoal from the waste or by-products of forests. An experiment was conducted to determine the best species of trees for charcoal production and charcoal requirements for the fabrication of the most common tools. A comparative study was also done to find out the cost of charcoal production versus local market prices. Use of the 3D principle for production of charcoal appears feasible, although less profitable, than use of good stands for the species studied, namely, Pinus roxburghii, Castonopsis indica, Schima wallichii, Lyonia ovalifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Prunus cerasoides. The potential of community forests in providing income generation, to disadvantaged groups appears promising.
Disabled people form the largest minority group in the world and are starved of the services and facilities available to the general population. Despite the efforts taken by international, national and regional policymakers, their sustained livelihood remains an unsettled issue. The book examines the issue of sustainable livelihood of the disabled in India with particular focus in the state of Kerala which has comparable status of human development with the developed nations. Three types of disability are considered disability in seeing, speech/hearing, and movement disability. The socioeconomic status of the disabled including the literacy level, educational attainment, status of housing, access to drinking water, toilet facilities etc is very deplorable. Employment which is a path out of poverty is a mirage for majority of them. Access to technology and improved coverage of social security schemes is also low. Concerted effort from all fields to improve their livelihood status is the need of the hour. The book would be a good reference for academicians and researchers in the field of Economics, Sociology, Social welfare, Demography and will be of particular use to policy makers.
The livestock industry contributes an estimated 15- 25% of the value of total agricultural output playing a key role in the national economy. Animal production is valued as one of the main sector having enormous potential for food security and poverty reduction. The country has 4.4 million goats mostly kept by small scale farmers compared to 5.3 million cattle and 0.3 million sheep both declining. Poultry and pigs are estimated at 11 million and 11,795, respectively. The purpose of livestock production go beyond their direct output functions and include other significant economic and cultural roles. These include savings, insurance, cyclical buffering, accumulation and diversification, as well as various cultural roles related to status and the obligations of their owner. Issues such as climate change as it affects livestock production, animal genetic resource conservation and improvement have been a major concern in livestock production. This book attempt to discuss on such selected livestock issues which might be pertinent and over looked in livestock production in Zimbabwe.
The economic policy of Ethiopia aims at ensuring rapid and sustainable development through an agriculture-centered development strategy. This strategy is known as Agriculture Development Led Industrialisation strategy (ADLI), and concentrates mainly on the linkages between agriculture and other sectors of the economy. Agricultural growth is seen as a guarantee against food insecurity in the country. The food security strategy5 of Ethiopia is based on three important aspects: a)increasing food and agricultural production, b) improving food entitlement and c) strengthening capacity to manage food crises. In order to improve agricultural production a major emphasis is given to increasing productivity through the diffusion of improved technologies. In the food entitlement strategy, the focus is on reducing vulnerability in drought prone areas. The strategy also focuses on strengthening emergency capabilities. It involves maintaining emergency food reserves, developing an effective early warning system, and holding strategic seed reserves.
The Bhil community is tribal community cultivating the land. Livelihood study can highlight the importance of how they make their living across season,sector and space,what factor affect their livelihood and what option are available for its improvement. Findings revealed that majority of Bhil farmers had medium basic facility,housing,clothing,Technology,Agriculture,Employment, food & nutritional,Health & sanitation and Livelihood status respectively. The variables like education,number of earning member were found positive & highly significant while family size,family type had negative & highly significant with livelihood status of Bhil farmers. 57.20 per cent of total variation in livelihood status was explained by selected variables. Most of Bhil farmers had availed the benefits under various developmental programmes implemented by different agencies. Among all 50.00 per cent have benefited from various schemes of tribal development department followed by agriculture & allied. Constraints faced in getting benefits was lack of awarness about various development programmes followed by delay in implementation.They suggest to get inform about schemes,provide help at right time.
Livestock, as a part of the global food production and ecological systems, is a key commodity for the well-being of humans. In future huge increase in the demand of animal production is expected to happen. Where food and water security will be the most important priorities for humankinds in the 21st century. The World will experience change in the global climate that will also cause shifts in the local climate that will have an impact on local and the global agriculture. This book reviews the impact of climate change on the health status of livestock and incidence of diseases, following the theory of global warming.
The plantation industry is the largest private employers in India. It is spread across the States of Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The plantation workforce has however been among the exploited workforce. This study throws light on this issue through livelihood approach. We express our sincere thanks to the authorities of Gandhigram Rural Institute, Deemed University - Gandhigram their support and encouragement for bringing out this piece of work in its present form.
Climate change posed the greatest threat to agriculture and food security in the 21st century, particularly in many of the poor, agriculture-based countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with their low capacity to effectively cope. Food insecurity is an integral part of poverty in Ethiopia owing to agricultural production is to be less able to adapt to climate change. Since agriculture in Ethiopia is highly dependent climate change. Erratic rain fall, dependency on single harvest, drought, land degradation, pest and weed infestation, lack of non-farm activity and lack of access farm credit are the more severely constraints in self- sufficiency in food production. However, the severity of all the factors was not equal in all Agro-ecosystems. The study reveals that lowland and valley, and hilly and mountainous areas are more persistent for food insecurity. Thus, food security interventions need to support livelihoods in ways that protect and buffer the natural resilience of households, and providing direct assistance to ensure that households remain resilient to the fragile and variable situations in which they exist.
This research report details out livelihood scopes for people engaged in cashew production and marketing in Chhattisgarh, India. Cashew sector is decaying gradually in the state in terms of its scope of production, skilled persons involved in the sector, its marketing and profitability. The study has described in details these areas as well as appropriate recommendations to solve sector wise problems. The report will be very useful for people engaged in cashew production & marketing, academic forums and policy decisions.