Contribution of livestock is about % of agriculture value and 11.4 % to the national GDP ith a total number of animals of million.In Pakistan the trend of extensive farming is common and has open grazing in the feild. Most of the farmers have up to 6 number of animals while sixteen percent farmers have more than 6 nimals. Gastrointestinal parasites are very common in sheep because of their open grazing and watering habbits. Parasites cause the economic losses and considered one of the most common infections.
Self performed mechanical plaque removal is an unquestioned method of maintaining good oral health. In an effort to improve the efficacy of mechanical tooth cleaning procedures, antimicrobial agents have been added to dentifrices. With the growing field of unconventional medicine, dentifrices based on plant extracts are available in the market. Herbal products are usually considered safe by the consumers. Many herbal dentifrices claim to have antimicrobial properties. But there is little or no research to prove or refute the efficacy of dentifrices containing herbal components, in contrast with an overabundance of such research for conventional dentifrices. Also, it is generally agreed that with the omission of fluoride from most herbal dentifrices, these dentifrices usually relinquish dental caries preventive benefits. Hence, with the increase attractiveness of herbal dentifrices dental professionals are not in a position to provide information to their patients and others about the efficacy of these products. This in vitro experimental research was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of commercially available herbal and conventional dentifrices against oral microbes.
Postpartum hemorrhage is the most serious complication in obstetrics. Postpartum hemorrhage occurs in approximately 4% of vaginal deliveries and estimates are that it caused significant morbidity & 25% of all the maternal child birth related deaths. The greatest number of maternal death from hemorrhage is due to postpartum hemorrhage, which is all most entirely a preventable condition by judicial & timely use of uterotonic agents in prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. In order to assess the efficacy of various uterotonic agents in management of third stage of labour parameters such as amount of blood loss duration of 3rd stage of labour and mean fall in hemoglobin 48 hour after the delivery were taken into account. All these parameters were explained with the help of statistical analysis. The subject matter has been presented in simple language. This book can serve as a good reference material for the students, teacher/scientist, researcher, policy makers and staff of medical field.
The economic losses due to hypodermosis are of much importance. Warble fly causes loss in price of warble infested hides as compared to warble free hides. Hypodermosis is also a cause of retarded growth and loss of weight in young as well as in adult animals.Migration of larvae under the skin of infested animals is cause of destroying the meat in the tracks of Hypoderma larvae. Milk production may also be reduced due to this disease. This book can lead the readers to know well about hypodermosis and efficacy of different drugs against this infestation
This book has information about Aedes Aegypti mosquito species in lahore, Pakistan.Pakistan is located at the region of South East Asia in subtropical belt which is favored for mosquito distribution. Severe cases of mosquito borne diseases occur every year in different localities of Pakistan. Dengue fever is one of the most threatening arboviral diseases of humans that have threatened 2.5 billion in the tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. Worldwide prevalence of disease is estimated to be 100 million clinical cases, of which 250,000 victims die annually (WHO, 2009). This book gives idea about the efficacy of Mousticide wettable powder (WP) (20% each of Bti WP, TMOF, and yeast) and and Mousticide rice husk (RH) (4% each of Bti, TMOF, yeast and rice husk) formulations to control the Aedes Aegypti (1st-3rd) instars in the laboratory conditions.
Maedi-visna is a persistent viral disease of adult sheep caused by lentivirus infection. Maedi-visna is associated with progressive mononuclear cell inflammatory lesions in lungs, joints, udder and central nervous system. Maedi-visna virus persists and replicate in the presence of host specific immune response and cause immune mediated lesions in several organs and systems. It induces immunosuppresion by affecting macrophage activity thus predisposes for secondary infections. Among secondary infections, bacterial pathogens have drawn a series attention due to varied clinical manifestations, severity and emergency of resistant strains to a number of chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, there is a need to analyze the extent of involvement of different pathogenic bacteria agents in Maedi-visna so that appropriate control measure could be implemented. The most compelling evidence of infection is obtained by isolation and identification of causative agents. Accordingly, a detailed investigation undertaken to identify various bacterial isolates involved in Maedi-visna and to analyze their antibiogram pattern against chemotherapeutic agents in veterinary medicine practice are discussed
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, reported world-wide. The gram negative, rod shaped bacterium is ubiquitous with normal nutritional requirement. P. aeruginosa is commonly encountered in health-associated infections. According to CDC, incidence of P. aeruginosa infections in U.S. hospitals averages about 0.4 % and the bacterium is the fourth most commonly isolated nosocomial pathogen accounting for 10.1% of all hospital acquired infections. Despite advances in sanitation facilities and the introduction of wide variety of antimicrobial agents with antipseudomonal activities of P. aeruginosa continue to be cause of life-threatening infections. With growing concerns about the development of biocidal resistance and cross-resistance with antibiotics, clinical isolates should be under continual surveillance and other possible mechanisms of resistance should be investigated. Also, antiseptic and disinfectant products can varies significantly in their activity despite containing similar levels of biocides, which underlies the need for close inspection of efficacy claims.
This book is the documentation of the existing sheep production system in the State of Tamil Nadu, India. The book also explains the purpose of keeping sheep by the producers and the time targeted by the producers to sale and buy the sheep. Here you can get enough information about the sheep production and marketing system and constraints existing in the system. The book provides list of sheep markets in the State, which will be useful for both buyers and sellers. The book also encompassed possible solutions to be used to solve the constraints of sheep production system in the state. The book is ideally suited as text for the agriculture students, extension agents, the live stock marketing agents, the sheep producers, and policy makers and for those who want to invest in the sheep production as well as marketing business.
The antimicrobial effects of commercial and household cleansers have not been compared in the studies conducted in the past.Hence we evaluated the efficacy of commercial and household denture cleansers against C albicans adherent to acrylic denture base resin. Fifty specimens of acrylic denture base resin were fabricated and processed according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Sterile acrylic resin specimens were inoculated by immersing in Sabouraud broth containing C albicans for 16 hrs at 37°C.Then the specimens were washed and immersed in denture cleansers and water for 8 hrs at room temperature.After 8 hrs the acrylic resin specimens were washed,fixed with methanol&stained with crystal violet.Candida cells adherent to the acrylic resin specimens were counted under microscope.The number of cells adherent to the test samples were compared with that adherent to the control.The data were analyzed.The effectiveness of commercial denture cleansers was significant better than that of household denture cleansers.This study would be of help to professionals who deal with geriatric patients with dentures & to patients with less manual dexterity limiting their ability to clean dentures.
Larvicidal efficiency of the spore, crude toxin and fractions of Trichoderma reesei was evaluated against vector mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. The study revealed that, the lowest LC50 and LC90 of the spore,crude toxin and fractions are 0.002, and 46, spore ml-1, 11.18ppm and 42.98ppm 9.19ppm and 27.50ppm respectively. Besides, histopathological study unveiled the degeneration as well as alteration in the midgut epithelial cell was observed. Finally, the highly active F3 fraction was identified as T2 toxin, a Trichothecene derivative of Trichoderma sp based on the fraction and GC-FID analysis.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia where Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma hematobium are widespread. praziquantel has been the most effective drug and used as mass chemotherapy. However, recently low cure rate recorded in different parts of the word. As it is the only drug used for schistosomiasis, there is a need to periodically evaluate the efficacy in different geographic settings. So this study evaluateed efficacy of Praziquantel against S.mansoni. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Fincha Valley followed by non randomized trial. Positive students treated with praziquantel 40mg/kg. Cure and reduction rate evaluated 4 weeks after treatment through fecal egg count by two Kato - Katz on two consecutive days. Data was analyzed and parasitological cure rate and egg reduction rate was 80.9% & 99.5% respectively. There was a significant association between cure rate and pre-treatment infection intensity (P > 0.05), but not between cure rate and age groups (P < 0.05). Praziquantel in a single dose remain efficacious despite prolonged use of the drug. However, further studies are needed.
Periodontal disease is believed to result from an infection by a group of bacteria known as the periodontopathogens. In order to infect the periodontal sulcus, these organisms require specific environmental conditions that favour their growth. These conditions are brought about by less pathogenic bacteria that form part of group of organisms known as “the primary plaque colonizers”. By eliminating these pioneer species it may be possible to prevent the colonization of the pocket by the periodontopathogens. Recently herbs and plant extracts with known antimicrobial properties have been incorporated into a number of dentifrices.These may have the ability to reduce bacteria associated with the development of dental plaque. In this book, we show how several herb based toothpastes were tested for their antimicrobial efficacy.The results may have direct implications in the management of periodontal disease.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food and cash crop of Pakistan. It is also one of the main export items of the country. It accounts for 5.9 percent of value added in agriculture and 1.3 percent in GDP. Rice plays multifarious roles in the economy of Pakistan. Firstly, it is second staple food and contributes more than 2.0 million tones to our national food requirement. Secondly, rice industry is an important source of employment and income for rural people. Thirdly, it contributes in the country, s foreign exchange. Food security in Asia depends largely on irrigated rice. More than 75 % of the world’s rice is obtained from 79 m ha of irrigated land in Asia. But water scarcity has become menace for the sustainability of irrigated rice production. Most popular method of rice cultivation in Southeast Asia is transplanting. It is becoming difficult practice due to shortage and high cost of labour, water scarcity, and reduced profit.Therefore, farmers and researchers are trying hard to find out new ways to decrease water use in rice production and increase its use efficiency, essential for food security and sustaining environmental health in Asia.
The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is a common pest insect known for attacking and infesting stored flour and grain. They are one of the most common and most destructive insect pests for grain and other food products stored in silos, warehouses, grocery stores, and the home. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) is a Gram positive, soil dwelling bacteria commonly used as a biological alternative to a pesticide. The present project was designed for the study of combined insecticidal effect of Bacillus thuringiensis along with boric acid, insecticide cypermethrin and the plant leaves powder i.e Azadirachta indica against the Tribolium castaneum to check the mortality rate of these insects and LC50 was calculated. Bacteria were isolated from rich soil, pulse dust, grain dust and its growth was checked on the T3 media by applying the microbial techniques. On the other hand the larvae of T. castaneum were reared in empty glass jars, the third instar larvae and the adults were collected which were used in insecticidal bioassays.
Current study was intended to verify the effectiveness of different fungicides alone and in combination against downy mildew of pumpkin. Diseased samples were collected for inoculation from different farms of Okara district. Selected chemotherapeutic mixtures were sprayed for the control of (Pseudoperonaspora cubensis) under field condition. After statistical analysis on recorded data Ipovalicarb (s) + Propanib (P) resulted in minimum disease incidence among all the treatments in the study by controlling the disease 60% as compare to Tebuconazole (s) + Metiram (p) was second effective treatment followed by Matlaxal (s) + Mancozeb (p) and the disease was controlled 58 and 55% respectively. Remaining three combinations Cymoxinal (s) + Mancozeb (p), Difenconazole (s) +Mancozeb (p) and Chlorothalonil (p) + Fosytyle Al (s) significantly control the disease incidence 52%, 46% and 39% respectively. Pumpkin crop showed comprehensible response to environmental correlation. Results exposed that optimum growth of (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) occur in moderate and rainy weather conditions with temperature range 25-28 ?C and rain fall measured about 0.5-0.7mm