Breast cancer is one of the major causes of premature mortality in women. Research suggests that psychological stress may be a contributing factor to breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such an association have yet to be clearly defined. This research work outlines the current state of knowledge on the relationship between stress and breast cancer and focuses on identifying novel molecular signals which may contribute to the effect of stress on breast physiology. With the help of molecular techniques, The Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1 (BRCA1), an important regulator of the genetic processes responsible for tumor development, is identified as a target of stress signalling. In addition, the currently unknown role of genetic modifiers in the relationship between stress and breast cancer is addressed through the development of an epidemiological study examining if stress- susceptible individuals are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. An integrative model, incorporating genetic stress susceptibility and downstream changes in the expression and activity of molecular regulators is proposed.
Depression, anxiety and stress often coincides with breast cancer and adjuvant therapy treatments. Despite breast cancer is primarily a woman''s disease, there is little attention paid to describe these treatment side-effects experienced by young adult breast cancer women. Thus, highlighting young breast cancer women depression, anxiety, and stress level during adjuvant therapy treatment is crucial. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the association between ages or the time after initial diagnosis and the level of depression, anxiety and stress among young adult breast cancer women. This is a descriptive study on young adult breast cancer (BC) women undergoing adjuvant therapy in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Data was collected by self-administered questionnaire. A total of 21.6% (n=11) young breast cancer women undergoing adjuvant therapy experienced depression, 51% (n=25) with anxiety, and 11.8% (n=6) of the young adult breast cancer women with stress. Study shows that more than 10% of young adult BC women suffered from depression, anxiety and stress. These results suggest that young adult BC women are affected by psychological burden.
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths and is the most common cancer among women. Although a number of biomarkers are being used in clinical practice, significant number cases for breast cancers are detected late and difficult to treat. Therefore, new biomarkers are in need to improve diagnosis and the therapeutics for breast cancer. The emergence of proteomics technologies has facilitated researcher comprehensive differential expression analyses of proteins in healthy and cancer individuals. The most commonly used proteomic techniques in breast cancer research are 2D-PAGE, SELDI-ToF MS, Protein Arrays, ICAT, iTRAQ and SILAC. Recent advancement in proteomics has also enabled to study the intracellular signalling pathways that may underlie the development of breast cancer. Thus, proteomics could play significant roles in identification of novel biomarkers and/or drug targets to improve existing prognosis and diagnosis of breast cancer. This book covers a selection of advances in the realm of proteomics and its promise for the discovery of biomarkers and drug targets, and sample preparation of cell culture and clinical martial for breast cancer research.
Carcinoma breast is an ancient and elusive disease which has claimed the lives of many, since time immemorial. It is one of the most serious problems of clinical and research oncology and till date, remains the commonest cause of death from cancer in women. Despite extensive research that has been on-going for decades throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of breast cancer still remains obscure. Various etiological factors have been proposed but their relevance has not yet been elucidated. The main focus of this research work has been to delve into the role of one of those risk factors, i.e., oxidative stress in breast carcinogenesis. Oxidative stress has been implicated in several human pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and several malignancies – just to name a few. The question we ask ourselves at this stage is – “what are the implications of oxidative stress in breast carcinogenesis?” If oxidative stress really is an important causative factor of carcinoma breast, this would be a major breakthrough in the search for a cure for breast cancer since prevention of oxidative stress would be synonymous to prevention of breast carcinogenesis.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among females, both in incidence and death. As meaningful biological understanding of the disease is confounded by the existence of various molecular groups and sub-groups, the challenge for targeted drug development may lie in understanding the molecular mechanisms of various sub-groups in breast cancer. This book describes the gene expression profiling approach for deeper understanding of the dynamics of breast cancer progression and prognosis.
The mechanisms by which NO is generated are still largely unresolved and elucidation of how it is made by different plant cells in different situations is clearly a research priority. No doubt, NO a ubiquitous bioactive molecule, plays an important role in a broad spectrum of multiple H2O2 mediating physiological processes in plants. NO and H2O2 have now been shown to function as synergistic signals in plants mediating a range of responses to abiotic stresses.
The research study is an endeavour to look at the lives of women with breast cancer.The construct of stress and well-being were explored from multiple perspectives. The study delineates the stressors as perceived by women, and its implications on their sense of well-being. Research has indicated an inextricable chemical link between our emotions, stress in our lives, and the regulatory mechanisms of endocrine and immune systems. This research study emphasizes the importance of expressing our emotions and releasing tensions. Inappropriate storing of stressful emotions results in internal weakening of the immune system, which has a significant potential for the onset of the disease.The science of Psychoneuroimmunology presents enough evidence about the communication link that exists between the mind and the body. The bio-medical approach has certainly made amazing advances, but its limitation lies in not capitalizing on an individual's emotional well-being from a humanistic approach.A paradigmatic shift is required in the way by which the medical fraternity deals with cure; especially for an illness like cancer, in which the treatment is as dreaded as the disease.
Breast cancer affects more women in the world today than any other cancer. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that diet and lifestyle play a substantial role in the development of breast cancer in women. This study confirmed that apparently healthy and educated women participated in short term intervention can be motivated to increase their dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, improved their physical activity and reduce their body fat percentage.
This book reviews the basic concepts in cellular signal transduction with emphasis on growth factor signalling. Most of the kinases that are aberrantly regulated in various forms of cancers are discussed in the perspective of current therapeutic targets. In addition to presenting up to date review of current research, this book contains thoughtful discussions on therapeutic resistance to cancer and future directions for cancer therapy.
With the historical shift toward holistic approach towards health; the scientific interest has increased in the relevance of life stresses to health and disease. There is sufficient clinical and empirical evidence that suggests that stress plays a significant role in cancer. This book consists of a series of indigenous researches which explored the relationship among life stresses, anxiety and depression among the patients suffering from cancer of breast and uterus in the extremely costly health-care system of the Pakistani society. The findings of these researches have implications for promoting our understanding and knowledge of the psychological problems of the patients suffering from cancer. These findings may further help the professionals to introduce timely psycho-therapeutic interventions for the effective treatment, management and rehabilitation of the cancer patients in Pakistani health-care system. It is hoped that this book will be of immense value for the students and the professionals in the field of oncology, general medicine, clinical psychology, applied psychology, psychiatry, social work, sociology and other allied disciplines.
Ovarian cancer is the third most common malignancy amongst Pakistani women. It is a silent killer and kills a number of females silently because in most of the cases when this cancer is diagnosed it is on 3rd or 4th stage. Development of this cancer is influenced by genetic, biochemical and environmental factors. Oxidative stress and DNA damage play a pivotal role in its progression. So, the objective of this study was to see the effect of oxidative stress in causation and progression of ovarian cancer and its impact on DNA damage, homocysteine levels and total antioxidant status in ovarian cancerous patients. This study also measured new biomarkers that are closely linked to the progression of ovarian cancer and also found their correlation. The results of study show that excessive inflammation and oxidative stress but low levels of antioxidants cause an increase in DNA damage. There is a direct relationship between oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study suggests the use of antioxidants as drugs to reduce oxidative stress.
The FHIT and Caveolin-1 genes are considered to be the intermediate penetrator genes that are involved in the development of Breast cancer. The basic aims of this thesis were to study the role of FHIT and CAV-1 gene in the development and progression of Breast cancer. The main aims of the study are: ? Detection of genetic aberrations in different exons of FHIT gene in Breast cancer patients using PCR- SSCP technique. ? Confirmation of detected mutations by Automated DNA Sequencing. ? Detection of genetic aberrations in different exons of CAV-1 gene and in Breast cancer patients using PCR- SSCP technique. ? Confirmation of detected mutations by Automated DNA Sequencing. ? Methylation Analysis of different exons of FHIT gene in Breast cancer patients using Standard PCR based Methylation Assays. ? Methylation Analysis of different exons of CAV-1 gene in Breast cancer patients using Standard PCR based Methylation Assays. ? Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ATM IVS10-6T>G in Breast cancer patients. ? Mutational detection of CHEK2 1100delC and NBS1 657del5 by Allele Specific Polymerase Reaction.
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been detected in breast tumours and in breast cancer cell lines; they are a subpopulation of tumour cells with tumour initiating capacity, which self-renew and give rise to progeny that constitute the tumour bulk. It has been suggested that CSCs are major drivers of relapse after treatment because they are relatively resistant to drug- and radiation-induced cell death. Analysis of breast cancer stem cells has a major significance in the field of cancer therapy. From a therapeutic perspective, it is important to focus on the CSC population most responsible for tumour initiation, metastasis and relapse. But it is not currently clear which characteristics most define the highly tumorigenic population. Regarding this, my project focused on two main characteristics of CSCs: expression of pluripotency factors such as OCT4, and slow cycling properties using existing breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 that are known to contain a CSC population.Also, I attempted to leverage the marine bioproducts expertise of the Medical Biotechnology Department, and the Flinders Centre for Marine Bioproducts Development to screen for novel sponge-derived chemicals.
This research focuses on gene therapy as well as immunotherapy to target the breast cancer stem cells in breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer stem cells were isolated and proliferated from malignant breast tumors. About gene therapy, we used knockdown gene therapy to suppress the CD44 expression. CD44 holds an important role in stemness maintenance of breast cancer stem cells. CD44 down regulation makes breast cancer stem cells sensitize to anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin). So that combinatorial therapy of CD44 down-regulation and doxorubicin strongly suppressed the tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. In another way, we used dendritic cell therapy to target breast cancer stem cells. Dendritic cells were loaded with breast cancer stem cells derived antigens. The results also showed that dendritic cell vaccination inhibits the cancer development in mice models.