This study has examined the main topics of strategic management including its historical development, its definitions in literature, and its processes. There are many different strategic management process models in the literature. The study has used Fred David’s strategic management model. The model, which consists of three stages: strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategy evaluation, has been described theoretically. In the application part of the study, strategy formulation framework of David’s strategic management model has been applied to the Turkish Airlines on Domestic Air Transportation and strategy suggestions have been made to the firm.
In the business environment of South African banking industry, informed and committed employees are a source of competitive advantage. More than ever before, organisations'' strategies need to be effectively communicated, understood at all levels, and effectively implemented. The factors responsible for the effective communication of strategy between the head office and the network of a South African banking organization, using the face-to-face medium are: 1. Interpersonal Communication; 2. Change and Improvement; 3. Employee Involvement in Strategy Formulation; 4. Stability; and 5. Vertical Communication. Of these five factors, the first three are deemed significantly important to strategy communication effectiveness and factors one and five are specifically important to effective strategy communication through the use of the face-to-face medium. The research confirmed the importance of the involvement of all levels of managers in strategy formulation and the predominant use of the face-to- face medium for effective strategy communication.
Once every decade a book comes along that becomes the standard in a field of study, the indispensable reference that every thoughtful practitioner must have on the shelf. Like Samuelson in Economics, Drucker in Management, and Porter in Strategy, Rayportand Jaworski have written what leaders in the New Economy are calling the standard in e-commerce strategy formulation. >“Finally someone has put it all together! These leading thinkers have put in one place a brilliant and comprehensive framework for thinking through, planning, teaching and managing e-Business. And – beyond that – this book is a portalto a stream of the most complete set of online, video, and other resources for e-Business learning to date. Great insights. Powerful tools.” Ralph Oliva, Executive Director of the Institute for the Study of Business Markets and Professor of Marketing, Pennsylvania State University>
This thesis assesses the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action at local level of Kabokweni location, South Africa. The Hyogo Framework for Action is a framework, adopted by the United Nations, focuses on promoting proactive disaster management rather than reactive. This report is based on a case study using a questionnaire called the Views from the Frontline LITE. The questionnaire is developed by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Reduction as an alternative data collection method to the Views from the Frontline project. This thesis assesses, both in a qualitative and a quantitative way, how well the Hyogo Framework for Action and disaster risk reduction has been implemented in Kabokweni location. The findings of this thesis can be compared and used in other assessments using the Views from the Frontline approach since the Views from the Frontline LITE questionnaire has been used.
This is a case study on Hai-O Enterprise Berhad, the leading traditional healthcare group in Malaysia that has successfully promoted traditional Chinese medicine to a corporate level. It discusses the background of the organization, products, market and its strategies. The case study analyzed Hai-O’s position in the industries and its future plans to take the business further. It also talks about the internal and external environments of the business using different analysis tools which include PEST, SWOT and financial ratio analysis. Based on the analysis, some diagnosis are discussed which further explained the formulation of Hai-O’s vision, mission and objective. And the formulation of Hai-O’s strategies is discussed using different marketing strategy matrix which then further elaborate the organization’s strategies implementation, evaluation and control. Key issues and challenges in the business strategy of Hai-O are discussed in the conclusion part of the case study which evaluates the level of its success.
This study examines and considers the effects of country conditions in Russia on entry strategy selected by small and medium foreign manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs), which is a SME in manufacturing. The purpose of this exploratory study was to further contribute to the development of the theory of the entry strategy of SMEs in emerging markets, currently being in its infant stage. The theoretical framework employed in this study was Dunning’s (1993) eclectic model. Specifically, the framework is used to study how the similarities and differences in country conditions affect the entry-strategy choices of foreign SMMEs and large manufacturing multinational enterprises (MNMEs) in the emerging market of Russia. Based on these similarities and differences, the conclusions and propositions concerning foreign SMMEs’ choices of entry strategy in emerging markets were developed. The international market entry strategy consists of a timing of entry, place of entry (as well as the choice of a place within the country), and a scale of entry. This qualitative study combined analysis of secondary data analysis with face-to-face interviews (with foreign firms’ decision makers in Russia.
This book is based on a legal framework for poverty reduction in Bangladesh. This book also extends to development issue in view of international human rights law. Poverty is a local context. Poverty reduction strategy for Bangladesh should contain some specific requirements. This book kept light on those requirements. Here author suggested a legal framework for poverty reduction, that is social justice approach to poverty reduction. Moreover this work added some views and recommendation regarding poverty reduction strategy of Bangladesh.
The efficacy of medicinal plants in diabetic management is of great interest due to their beneficial effects on metabolic profile. In the present study, five herbal extracts and a prebiotic fructooligosaccharide produced from Aureobasidium pullulans have been evaluated alone as well as in formulation against T2DM. The formulation has been compared with L-carnitine having antioxidative, insulin mimetic, pancreatic ?-cell restoration and enhancing glucose utilization properties, required for normal metabolism. Further, molecular docking was performed for documented active phytoconstituents from each extract for putative action mechanism concerning three proteins (PTP-1B, PPAR-? and DPP-IV) known to have diabetic therapeutic potential. Our in vivo, in vitro and in silico experiments revealed that the formulation has more effective antioxidant and antidiabetic property due to the presence of different types of active phytochemicals, which may have different mechanisms of action. This book is a step ahead, towards his contribution for combating T2DM through an elaborate and explicit account of a safe supplementary herbal formulation.
What constitutes right action from a virtue ethical perspective? Critics of virtue ethics claim, that as a theory, virtue ethics fails to give a proper account of right action. According to some critics, any attempt to provide virtue ethics with a proper understanding of what right action is, or what it would specifically entail, is doomed to fail. Many conclude that we ought not take Virtue ethical theorizing seriously since it cannot provide us with a palatable account of right action. I argue against these critics, claiming that there can be a formulation of right action within a virtue ethical framework that is distinctly different from traditional versions and in turn does not fall to the criticisms that are levied against it. After detailing my account, I apply it to the controversial action of aborting. The aim of this book is three-fold: First, to give a version of right action within a virtue ethical framework that circumvents the latest criticisms. Second, to apply this theory to cases of abortion. Lastly, to discuss blame and praise in the context of abortion.
Introduction to E-Commerce, 2/e, by Rayport and Jaworksi, can be used as the principles book for e-commerce. Much like there is a “Principles of Marketing” that is intended to be the first course in marketing, The text covers the entire landscape of e-commerce. The key message is that faculty who want to teach an introductory class on e-commerce and focus on the “strategy” parts of e-commerce first and technology second, should adopt this book. Faculty who teach marketing, management, strategy and entrepreneurship as the “core” discipline prefer this book over “technology-oriented” e-commerce books. Introduction to e-Commerce gives present and future practitioners of e-Commerce a solid foundation in all aspects of conducting business in the networked economy. The text focus is on what a manager needs to know about Internet infrastructure, strategy formulation and implementation, technology concepts, public policy issues, and capital infrastructure in order to make effective business decisions. This is presented in a framework for the study and practice of e-Commerce with business strategy at the core surrounded by four infrastructures; the technology infrastructure that underlies the Internet, the mediainfrastructure that provides the content for businesses, public policy regulations that provide both opportunities and constraints, and the capital infrastructure that provides the money and capital to run the businesses. Within this framework, the authors provide a deep exploration of core concepts of online strategy and associated enablers enriched by a wide variety of examples, case studies, and explanations culled directly from practice.
In the present study, formulation of Fast dissolving film containing antihistaminic drug Desloratadine was designed to achieve immediate release of drug from the dosage form, to increase therapeutic efficacy and to improve patient compliance in case of allergy. The combination of drug with suitable polymers such as HPMC E-5 and HPMC E-15 helps in providing quick onset of action. The basic aim of this work is to produce immediate release action of drug from the film. Fast dissolving film was prepared by solvent casting method using PEG 400 as plasticizer. A full factorial design was used to study the effect of HPMC E-5 and HPMC E-15 on disintegration time, thickness and folding endurance of the film. The responses were analyzed using ANOVA and by the polynomial equation. All the formulations were then evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, and drug content and dissolution studies. Stability study shows that there was no significant change in physical appearance, disintegration time, thickness, drug content and In vitro drug release of the formulation. Fast dissolving film is an innovative concept for quick release of the drug.
The Chinese pizza restaurant market is experiencing a rapid growth and to entrepreneurs it represents exciting business opportunities. In order to explore the opportunities of competing on this market, this thesis applied two existing theories: Porter''s Five Forces (PFF, Porter, 1980) and the Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS, Kim and Mauborgne, 2005) to understand the Chinese pizza restaurant market and create an innovative entry strategy for a pizza restaurant---ABFPR. The purpose of the thesis was to see if a combination of PFF and the BOS was useful for providing an analytical framework to create an entry strategy for ABFPR. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized in this study. The findings indicated that PFF can help with providing an analytical framework of the Chinese pizza restaurant market, and the BOS can help creating differentiated value offerings in order to address the competition related challenges revealed during Porter''s analysis. The results are relevant to entrepreneurs who are interested in opening restaurants in the Chinese pizza restaurant market and the model can benefit the entrepreneurs to exploit and develop the Chinese pizza restaurant market.
The field of strategic management and strategy formulation has evolved into a complex area of study since its emergence in the 1960's, even for the most knowledgeable and experienced strategist. Strategy Safari-A Guided Tour through the Wilds of Strategic Management, by Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand and Joseph Lampel is an overview of the full field of academic and business studies of strategy formulation, based on previous lecture series delivered by Mintzberg. In that book, the authors identified ten (10) schools of strategy formulation. One of which is the design school. The “design school” of strategic management, which focuses on a non-complex model that perceives the process of strategic formation as a design process to reach a satisfactory balance between internal distinctive competence and external threat and opportunity. Strategy formation should be a conscious, informal and controlled process of thought. This book provides a general overview of the Design School providing an example as to how it can be adopted by organisations even in present times despite its wide criticisms.
A book that helps the organization staying in the market and selecting the best alternative move will help in staying in the top ranks of the industry. A synchronized view to the data for all internal and external shareholders is critical. There can be no meaningful discussion about performance improvement if different users are measuring data points against different metrics. However, this is challenging since every company operates differently, follows different processes, and interprets data in different ways. Again, good technology choices will help the organization in this endeavor. This analysis provides both an offensive and defensive strategic context through which to identify opportunities and threats. Competitor profiling coalesces all of the relevant sources of competitor analysis into one framework in the support of efficient and effective strategy formulation, implementation, monitoring and adjustment.
Intradermal Drug Delivery System is a noval approach for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms to increase the bioavailability of drug with sustained action. IDDS for Trazodone-Hcl is really advantageous to treat patients with depression and schizophrenia. IDDS as Patch formulation is inserted in intradermal space to exert its effect. Biodegradable polymer used in its formulation help its biodegradtion under skin itself without any side effects so removal is not a big issue.