Colorectal carcinomas are the most common gastrointestinal tract tumors. 50-60% of colorectal carcinomas originate in rectum and sigmoid colon. Colorectal carcinoma is a frequent disease. New and improved surgical techniques and the implementation of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy have improved the 5 year survival rate significantly. Accurate preoperative assessment of tumor extent is essential for choosing the appropriate therapeutic strategy, and thus for patient prognosis.
TRUS is a highly accurate staging tool for carcinoma rectum.In other words , it shows high accuracy in determining the depth of rectal wall penetration and high percent accuracy in accessing regional lymph nodes.Pre operative TRUS staging was compaired with pathological staging obtained from biopsy of the resected specimen .It is a safe and well tolerated than other imaging modality by the patients.
Oral cancers are part of a group of cancers commonly referred to as head and neck cancers, and of all head and neck cancers they comprise about 85% of that category. Historically the death rate associated with this cancer is particularly high not because it is hard to discover or diagnose, but due to the cancer being routinely discovered late in its development.There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas.It is important to understand that while certain generalities can be drawn from the stages and the TNM system, each individual and each cancer are unique in many respects. This book should be helpful in understanding and reviewing the available staging and grading systems for the step forward in diagnosis of OSCC.
Research is a high concept; it brings to test our patience, vigor and dedication. Every result arrived at a beginning for higher achievements. Our project in the same interest is just a drop in the ocean. At the same time Cancer biomarker?based diagnostics have applications for establishing disease predisposition, early detection, cancer staging, therapy selection, identifying whether or not a cancer is metastatic, therapy monitoring, assessing prognosis, and advances in the adjuvant setting. New laboratory methods, improvements in the tools available to scientists, and an overriding need to improve cancer therapies are driving current efforts to map cancer-related changes in the body. These changes encompass predisposition or risk factors associated with cancer and subsequent developments of the disease. The need to identify and understand cancer biomarkers is being driven by a number of factors. These include requirements to improve screening and early detection, to provide better guidance on therapy, and to avoid therapy resistance attributes, for understanding cancer staging, response to treatment, and prognosis.
Prostate Cancer is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The median age at diagnosis is 68years and the disease incidence escalates sharply with increasing age. The natural history is still relatively unknown and many aspects of progression are poorly understood .Clinically localized disease varies from lower-grade tumors having a more indolent course to high-grade lesions that progress to metastatic disease with relative rapidity. Prostate cancer is most treatable and curable if caught in the earliest stage of the disease. Staging is an important part of developing the best treatment. Choosing a treatment option involves the patient, his family, and one or more doctors. It needs multidisciplinary oncology doctors of prostate cancer specialists as an urologist, a radiation oncologist, and a medical oncologist. The optimal management of prostate cancer that is clinically confined to the prostate remains controversial. Standard treatment options for localized disease include Radical prostatectomy, Radiation Therapy and watchful waiting management.For metastatic prostate cancer it becomes far harder for complete cure.
This book will teach and give an overview of the risk factors of colo-rectal cancer.Colon cancer can be prevented if there is early detection for colon polyp ;it is apre-cancerous lesions arises at the lining mucosa of colon and or rectum and if not removed it will transformed after 8 to 10 years to cancerous.it is easy to prevent colon cancer disease unless you have a non modifiable risk factors e.g family history.nurses have a vital role in such diseases.
Nutraceuticals have received considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of diseases. Nutraceuticals are the natural bioactive, chemical compounds that have health promoting, disease preventing or medicinal properties. Nutraceuticals are substances which are not traditionally recognized nutrients but which have positive physiological effects on the human body. Nutrients, herbals and dietary supplements are major constituents of Nutraceuticals on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories which make them instrumental in maintaining health, act against various disease conditions like Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity disease, cancer etc. and thus promote the quality of life. Nutraceuticals create an open environment for novel products that promise novel solutions to health related issues. Nutraceuticals will play significant role in future therapeutic developments. The present article has been devoted towards better understanding of the basic concepts in general
This work is about the importance of assessing the size of breast cancer by physical examiation and ultrasound for exact staging and subsequent treatment of breast cancer .breast cancer is very common in women all over the world.physical examination and ultrasound are very good tools ,least expensive and noninvasive methods for assessing the size,help for proper treatment.this study showed that the ultrasound is a good tool,but operator dependant method.
This book offers a new reading of the Octavia as a staging ground in the memory wars surrounding Nero's fall. Through an innovative combination of cultural memory theory and intertextual analysis, Ginsberg argues that the play reimagines the imperial family as waging war on itself and its people, challenging their claim that with empire came peace.
Authors- Jasneet Singh Bhullar MD,MS; Sandiya Bindroo MD; Neha Varshney MD; Vijay Mittal MD, FACS. - Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of malignancy-related deaths worldwide. There is extensive ongoing research for a better understanding of the gastric cancer pathology and finding newer treatments. This book summarizes the different relevant topics on gastric cancer in which strides of improvement have been achieved. The current statuses and the advancements on different aspects of gastric cancer research, diagnosis, staging and treatments are discussed.
Staging Race – Black Performers in Turn of the Century America