Estimated cost of household ….it was estimated that household paid an average of 20.46 birr ($1.24) for prevention and 119.91 birr ($7.27) for treatment per episode direct cost or out of pocket payment for prevention and treatment of malaria..… the indirect cost for productive days lost and hours wasted for seeking treatment valued 99.50 birr ($6.03) per victim and 22.78 birr per caretaker. Estimation cost of Public Health Institutes; Health Office spends 1.33birr ($0.09) per household for malaria prevention and Health Facilities spend 47.27 birr ($2.87) per victim for treatment. Households’ response towards the disease affects their social matter….17% of households respond, due to the fear of decrease number of children in their households by malaria mortality they bear more children than they plan; …. 3.99% students were reported withdraw among the enrolled in 2010/2011 in Sidama Zone, among other reasons 3% withdrawal were due to malaria. It can be concluded that, malaria have the tendency to affect the long run human capital accumulation by causing school absenteeism. Generally, malaria poses huge economic and social cost on households and health facilitates.
This work was done in highly endemic zone of malaria i.e. North West Rajasthan, India, under the guidance of Dr.D.K. Kochar & DR. K.C. Nayak . In this zone every year malaria take lots of toll in form of mortality including pregnant females. This work will aware the researcher & public about the impact of plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant females, which seems like milder form of malaria. This work shows that vivax malaria may also fatal in some susceptible group of people.
Small scale agricultural ecosystem commonly referred to as home garden agroforestry system and also locally called darkuwaa were ethnobotanically studied in selected areas of Wolayta Zone, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). Twelve Peasant Associations (PAs) from four Woredas (Humbo, Boloso Sore, Damot Gale, Damot Woyde) of Wolayta Zone were selected randomly for the present study (three from each Woreda). A sample of 60 home gardens (15 from each Woreda) was selected by using systematic sampling method. Data on vegetation (species record, cover abundance, and number of individual) were recorded and the collected specimens were identified in the National Herbarium (ETH.). Ethnobotanic information was gathered on plant names, planting practice, source of planting material, and plant use systems through discussion walking along with farmers in their home gardens. A total of 160 plant species in 132 genera and 56 families were recorded and among which 112 useful plant species were identified. Of the 112 useful plant species, 75 mentioned as most useful plant species were used in the calculation of diversity index, richness and evenness.
The transmission of malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. From the total area of Ethiopia, more than 75% is malarious. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic risk factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. To achieve this objective, different statistical methods were developed. These Statistical methods are Surveylogistic, Generalized Linear Mixed models (GLMM), Spatial Statistics, Joint models, Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMM) and the Rasch model. The result from these analyses identified that poor socio-economic conditions are the main causes for malaria problem. Therefore, improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Moreover, with other control measures, including creating awareness about the use of mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS), the number of malaria cases can be reduced. In general, these models will significantly contribute in monitoring and control, and eventual possible malaria eradication efforts in Africa.
The study has been intended to model determinants of nutritional status of children under age five using cross-sectional study design and two-stage cluster sampling methods during data collection.Logistic regression model was used for data analysis because logistic regression belongs to the class of generalized linear models and is commonly used strategy in analyzing data which have categorical dependent variable. It allows one to predict a discrete outcome, such as group membership from a set of predictor, since logistic regression calculates the probability of success over the probability of failure and relationships and strength among the variables.The study used data collected from children under age five by using Anthropometric measurements and taking demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, nutritional, and health seeking variables by using administered questionnaire from mothers and care givers of children of Hawassa Zuria woreda in Sidama Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.
Dire Dawa, the second largest city of Ethiopia, has been suffering from disastrous floods in its history. Flooding is a common phenomenon and the major socio-economic problem of cities in Ethiopia especially cities like Dire Dawa. Dire Dawa, which is located at the foot hills of eastern Harerge highlands, has been repeatedly hit by powerful flood disasters. Flooding at different time destroyed homes, public institutions, market places with their properties, infrastructures, crops in the field, livestock, etc. and very little academic literature exists on the causes of floods of ephemeral rivers and their Socio-economic impacts, particularly, the direct and indirect impacts separately. This book, therefore, provides a new direction of employing the SC-CN model in a small watershed in tropical environment, shows the inundation analysis to present areas of inundated and depict the impacts inflicted. Moreover, it shows the importance of utilizing ECLAC methodology to show about the direct and indirect impacts of ephemeral Rivers on the socio-economic sectors for policy makers in order to make sound decision.
Survey was conducted in Mizan – Aman district on socio – economic problems toward dairy cattle productivity with the aim to gather information on dairy market problem, infrastructure effect, institutional effect and capital problem exist in the district. Market problems exist in the district were due to low production of milk, absence of milk collection system and milk treatment facility and none employment opportunity for the society in the sector. The house generally was not comfortable for cattle management (cleaning, oestrus detection, supply of feed and water, milking, inspecting illness etc). Poor road system was observed in the district. Though enough health clinics were available in the district, it lacks professionals and service regarding to vaccination. Lack of giving training and advisory for the farmers was attributed to institutional problem. Weaknesses in making farmer cooperative in the sector were observed. The farmers do not use credit services from institutions offering as they don’t have trust on the system. All of these problems hampered dairy cattle development in this district.
The socially defined gender roles of men and women gauge the power balance between the two sexes. In developing countries most communities afford inferior positions to women. In effect women are either under collective decision-making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner’s decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Hence identifying the major barriers of married women’s decision-making power on contraceptive use and exploring the effect of women’s socio-economic and decision-making status on couple’s contraceptive behavior has significance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. Community based comparative cross-sectional study design with both quantitative and Qualitative data collection technique has been employed from March to April 2010 in Tercha town and the surrounding communities of Dawro zone, SNNPR. The respondents are married women’s with in child bearing age group who were identified by using prior census and sampled accordingly.
HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a global crisis affecting all levels of society. It is an urban threat that affects the civil servants uniquely. The social and economic consequences of the epidemic are having an impact on civil servants, institutions and on the development of the town. All the civil servants and their institutions are faced social and economic problems by the epidemic. The objective of the study is to reveal that the social and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on civil servants of Wukro town in Tigray, Ethiopia. Therefore, the analysis will help the individuals, institutions and policy makers to understand the socioeconomic impacts of HIV/AIDS on civil servants, so as to forward or plan the possible measures to reduce these impacts on the development.
Malaria is a major challenge to public health and socio-economic development worldwide and in sub –Saharan Africa in particular. It causes an estimated 300 to 500 million cases and 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths worldwide each year, of which 80% of the cases and 90% of the deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of malaria related in-hospital mortality. The data were taken from hospital records at Bushulo major health center from June 2007 to June 2010, Hawassa, Ethiopia. From a total of 6594 laboratory confirmed malaria positive in the health center, a sample of 539 patients were selected using stratified random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using the classical logistic regression and Bayesian Logistic regression approaches. In this effort the two approaches were compared using standard errors of model parameters. The results of the study showed that 78.5% of malaria patients were found to be discharged while the rest 21.5% died of malaria in the health center. From Bayesian logistic regression analysis.....
The potential relationship between HIV and Malaria Infections is one of the area of contemporary medical research with very significant impact and implications at personal, community and global levels. The implications will surely be very much in developing countries who are major victims of both ailments. This piece of work explores such potential relationship between HIV and Malaria by employing clinical, bio-medical and behavioral research methods in a developing country setting to identify and generate important data for further consideration in the ongoing quest.
Cooperatives are becoming increasingly important to individual members, the community, the business sector, and the national economy in Ethiopia. Though cooperatives are developing by leaps and bounds in Ethiopia, the literacy levels are low among primary cooperative members and, as a result, knowledge and understanding of cooperative concepts, principles, values, and benefits within primary cooperatives needs to be further developed. The present book dovetails in appraising the level of knowledge, understanding and attitude of members towards primary agricultural cooperatives in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia.
FMD is an acute, highly communicable and economically important disease of livestock and wild animals. This study was conducted on FMD’s livelihoods impact, trend analysis and benefit-cost ratio of vaccination in Borena zone, of Ethiopia. The study used participatory appraisal methods and secondary data sources. The study clearly showed that FMD had the greatest impact on the cattle-derived benefits and the trend of outbreaks frequency and severity has been increasing with timeline. Furthermore, through the timeline, FMD outbreaks frequency and severity was found to be significantly correlated to length of extended dry season. The benefit from FMD vaccination is found to be 9.1 times that the expenses of the vaccination indicating that the control of FMD in Borena zone by vaccination could be justified on economic grounds. Although it is not expected for a vaccination program to lead to a disease free status in herds in the region soon, decreased FMD incidences that would imply less stress on people’s lives, secure food sources and social harmony and also might increase national and international trade opportunities.
Malaria, one of the world’s greatest public health challenges, kills 750,000 people annually, 90% of them children in sub-Saharan Africa. The burden of malaria can be dramatically reduced and in many cases eliminated, if all people at risk have access to accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Although parasite-based malaria diagnosis is now a global policy, it remains inaccessible to most people who would benefit from it. Successful roll-out of universal malaria diagnosis will require a strategic mix of community engagement and improved knowledge on health-seeking behaviour, health-worker recruitment and training, sustainable management algorithms and the infrastructure to support them. These are system-wide issues, providing challenges but also huge opportunities for improvement in healthcare delivery. This work examines some of the implications of this revolution in the provision of health care. Developing such an understanding of the opportunities opened by accurate point of care diagnosis for acute disease, and the limitations, is essential to ensuring the potential for impact of these new technologies on public health is achieved. Inside Preface by Dr David Bell, FIND
Malaria and malnutrition are thought to coexist more particularly among the impoverished communities, with children in the Sub-Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burden. Both protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and malaria have immunosuppressive effect with massive consequences on the quality of life and chances of survival in vulnerable groups, more specifically among the under-fives. The relationship between malaria and malnutrition is complex. Some studies have found that malaria leads to compromised nutritional status while in others compromised nutritional status increases susceptibility to malaria infection. On the other hand, there is evidence that malnutrition can protectagainst malaria. Improvement of nutritional status among the under-fives may be one of the effective strategies/interventions of prevention and management of malaria and subsequently anaemia morbidities in regions where malnutrition and malaria are common public health problems and sometimes simulteanously exist. Interventions to mitigate malaria and malnutrition are likely to be more efficient and effective if an integrated approach is designed, adopted and implimented.