Capital adequacy requirements are the rules that help bank supervisors determine whether banks hold sufficient capital at all times to meet unexpected losses. The banking industry had moved ahead with its risk assessment technique, economic capital models and risk based pricing. The turmoil in banking industry has provided an opportunity to examine the robustness of risk assessment techniques and economic capital models.This book provides a good understanding of the reasons behind bank failures, risk assessment techniques, economic capital models and risk based pricing that reduce the risk of future failures. The importance of risk management of commercial banks in terms of capital measurement has been emphasized throughout.The prime objective of the book is the measurement of capital of the unexpected loss for risk management of the commercial banks in order to prevent insolvency. It provides technique to quantify capital for holding on economic basis.
Investors typically face problems when they are in position of deciding on capital investments to be undertaken. Problems they face are related primarily with evaluation of the project, and secondarily with risk related to the project that is supposed to be undertaken. This book introduces methods of capital budgeting investment criteria, in order to choose the best project, by applying some of the risk management methods that are offered. At the very end of the book, practical examples of capital investment and risk management are presented, on a case done on legislative regulations on minimum standards of risk management in commercial banks.
The management of operational value-at-risk (OpVaR) in financial institutions is pre-sented by means of a novel, robust calculation technique and the influence of this value on the capital held by a bank for operational risk. A clear distinction between economic and regulatory capital is made as well as the way OpVaR models may be used to calculate both types of capital. Under the Basel II Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) banks may employ OpVaR models to calculate regulatory capital; this study therefore illustrates the differences in regulatory capital when using the AMA and the Standardised Approach (SA) by means of an example. Economic capital is found to converge to regulatory capital using the AMA, but not if the SA is used.
This book presents the results of the study on influence of Environmental Risk Management on the general performance of commercial banks in Uganda. Quantitative research approaches were adopted and a method of data collection, consisting of a survey questionnaire was used. The results from the research provide some evidence that commercial banks in Uganda incorporate environmental issues into lending decisions and are aware of environmental risks and opportunities. It further revealed that good Environmental Risk Management(ERM)contributes to better overall performance of banks and that consideration of environmental issues when making lending decisions is important to banks. The study recommended development and implementation of a comprehensive environmental risk management system and frameworks, adoption environmental management procedures, adoption of appropriate strategy and consideration of structured community participation in monitoring funded projects for enhancing ERM.
The recent turmoil on financial markets has made evident the importance of efficient liquidity risk management for the stability of banks. The measurement and management of liquidity risk must take into account economic factors such as the impact area, the timeframe of the analysis, the origin and the economic scenario in which the risk becomes manifest. Basel III, among other things, has introduced harmonized international minimum requirements and has developed global liquidity standards and supervisory monitoring procedures. The short book analyses the economic impact of the new regulation on profitability, on assets composition and business mix, on liabilities structure and replacement effects on banking and financial products.a??
Measurement of efficiency and ranking of Indian commercial banks are serious concern not only to the management of an individual bank but also to the policy maker.Non Performing Asset(NPA)reflect the risk factor of the concerned commercial bank. the banks should some how reduce NPAs in order to reduce their risk and become efficient.To measure ecological efficiency we can apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique.It can handle multiple inputs and multiple outputs with comfortable ease and it provide a bench mark frontier relative to which an inefficient bank is compared with an efficient one. this book has brought out with several proposed linear programming problems not only to measure ecological efficiency of decision making units, but implements the method to asses eco and deep eco-efficiency of Indian commercial banks.
The book explains how interest rate risk exposure affects the financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda. The banking sector in Uganda is extremely exposed to various risk exposures in terms of volatility from exchange rates, currency fluctuations, oil prices shocks and inflation which later affects the lending activities of the banks. The purpose of the study was to highlight the key measures, strategies and best practices of minimizing risk exposures in the banking sector by practicing best risk management approaches in line with the international best practices of managing interest rate risks. The study has created avenues for discussion to the extent that the commercial banks in Uganda has achieved good sound and strong measures of the Camel rating risks measures of financial performance and risk reduction strategies in order to curb future risk exposures in the sector. We explore to encourage readers to compare our approach to bring in more insights to the banking sector best practices of interest rate risk management and best ways to sustain bank performance in the fragile environments especially financial crisis in the global financial markets and fragile economies
In view of growing complexity of banks’ business and the dynamic operating environment, risk management has become very significant, especially in the financial sector. Risk at the apex level may be visualized as the probability of a banks’ financial health being impaired due to one or more contingent factors. While the parameters indicating the banks’ health may vary from net interest margin to market value of equity, the factor which can cause the important are also numerous. For management of risk at corporate level, various risks like credit risk, market risk or operational risk have to be converted into one composite measure. Therefore, it is necessary that measurement of operational risk should be in tandem with other measurements of credit and market risk so that the requisite composite estimate can be worked out. So, regarding to international banking rule (Basel Committee Accords) and RBI guidelines the investigation of risk analysis and risk management in Co-Op banks is being most important.
The recent market turmoil caused by the sub-prime crisis highlighted how several key factors can strongly affect the banks’ capability to preserve their financial equilibrium under stress. Current liquidity risk models demonstrated to undervalue extreme events affecting funding and market risk in global scenarios. There was not an integrated measurement tool able to cover all the dimensions of liquidity risk and commonly adopted by the majority of institutions. This work, therefore, intends to highlight the most significant features to consider in order to implement an effective liquidity risk measurement and management.
This monograph focuses on the liquidity risk of commercial banks in the Visegrad countries in the period from 2000 to 2011. This risk is comprehensively evaluated with several different methods: six liquidity ratios, panel data regression analysis with fixed effects, probit model and scenario analysis. The liquidity position, net position on the interbank market and strategy of liquidity risk management differ significantly in individual Visegrad countries. The capital adequacy is the most important determinant of bank liquidity. However, some other factors such as size of the bank, credit portfolio quality or macroeconomic development are significant as well. All three tested stress scenarios would have a negative influence on bank liquidity. A run on the bank would have most serious impact on the bank liquidity in all Visegrad countries. The use of committed loans is the second most severe scenario for Czech and Slovak banks and a crisis confidence in the interbank market for Hungarian and Polish banks.
Project Finance is a well established technique for large capital intensive projects, particularly in infrastructure sector and involves financing of projects on stand-alone basis . Understanding Project Finance is critical in the current context as India gears up for USD 1 trillion investment in Infrastructure in the next five year plan, around 30 per cent of which is expected to be financed by the private sector. Commercial Banks presently contribute 20% of total infrastructure investment and the exposure of commercial banks to this sector is increasing. Multifaceted risks are involved in bank-funding of infrastructure. Apart from asset liability mismatches – leading to liquidity and interest rate risks, banks face regulatory and political uncertainty associated with these projects. Indian bankers are on a learning curve with regard to the understanding the mechanics of infrastructure financing. Therefore this dissertation aims at demystifying project appraisal, risks, contractual structures and packaging approaches that achieves each party’s objectives efficiently. It also attempts to lay down a rating framework for infrastructure projects.
You bother to know how Basel II Accord is shaping the mechanics of risk management practices in Nigerian banks? Look no further. This paper chronicles some of the issues Nigerian banks have had to contend with while implementing Basel II Accord as directed by the Central Bank of Nigeria. The paper succinctly identifies the impacts of Basel II implementation in such areas as risk measurements, risk modelling, economic capital, capital allocation and management in Nigerian banks. As a professional, you will find this paper useful in appreciating how risk management mechanisms could be of help to your area of engagement. You will see how the concept of risk management affects different areas of banking business. Also as an academic or student, you will find the paper useful for your research in the areas of financial intermediation, risk management and Basel II Accord.
In research performed I watched to present methods of classification of loans and methods of establishing internal ratings within the banks. The result of the method of classifying assets consists in identifying good quality loans and their separation by the nonperforming loans. I also conducted an analysis of the situation of currency risk in case of the commercial banks. Thus I determined a set of indicators that can be measured both at the level of territorial units as well as the level of Central Bank. Another important issue addressed in the paper is the importance of ensuring solvency of the bank in overtaking difficulties generated by the financial crisis. In the chapter relating to the measurement the risk of interest rate I identified a technique used in banking to reduce interest rate risk, named GAP model or model of discrepancy between assets and liabilities of banks. In terms of reduction of the liquidity risk I presented a method that allows monitoring the indicators of liquidity on maturity bands. In the chapter concerning to management of the operational risk I presented a new method for managing this type of risk, respectively the insurance of operational risk.
In an attempt to restore banking stability and safety during the 1980''s, bank regulators typically introduced explicit minimum capital regulation to increase capital ratios and moderate risk-taking. The effects of bank regulation on the capital and risk levels of banks are not always as intended; in some cases, promoting moral hazard behaviour and further increasing the probability of insolvency. Some of these effects were at the roots of the Global Financial Crisis. This book aims to explore in greater detail the relationship between capital and risk, the reasons for this relationship and why this relationship in emerging market banks may differ from that of banks in developed markets. A comprehensive analysis of corporate financial theory relating to capital and risk are carried out and form the theoretical basis of this study.
This work investigates the latest developments in commercial banking with regard to the measurement and management of risk and analyzes their effect on mid-market financial institutions. We look at how the implementation of advanced rating techniques influences the competitive position of market participants depending on their portfolio structure and competitive environment. To simulate rating sophistication we assume that in the process of credit assessment banks observe noisy signals about the creditworthiness of credit applicants. In the case of a competitive market then banks offer differing interest rates based on their loss estimates, whereas the customer chooses the credit with the lowest price. A simulation procedure is used in order to quantify the resulting profitability effects. The analysis reveals profitability differentials depending on the rating accuracy in different sections of the portfolio, the structure of the rating scale, and the specific competitive environment.