Cancer of Oesophagus is among the cancers with poor patient prognosis. Despite the "Oesophageal cancer belt" being the area with highest incidences, Cancer of Oesophagus is prevalent in all corners of the world. The epidermiology time ago, indicated squamous cell type being commonest. This has seen transition in the western countries to favour adenocarcinoma in predominance. In Zambia, however, there has not been this changing epidermiological picture. The study shows the stable epidermiology of cancer of Oesophagus in Zambia; and probably suggests a similar picture in other developing countries.
Fatigue is a common and potentially debilitating symptom of neuromuscular disease. It has a major impact on people's quality of life. To date no treatment has proven to be truly effective through evidence based medicine. Thus the therapist must use a multimodality approach in treating fatigue in patient with neuromuscular disease. Therapist managing the patient with neuromuscular fatigue should focus on finding ways for managing their life and to lessens the impact of fatigue. Key to the effective management of fatigue is accurate understanding of the physiological mechanisms responsible for it, identification of factors which may be contributing to it, and the central involvement of the individual and their family experiencing it.Exercises, activity pacing and assistive aids plays an important role in managing the patient with fatigue.
Ever since the evolution of human species on the nature, there is a tremendous scope in the field of research in medical sciences. New methodologies in teaching are drastically taking place of the old methods and are in a process of revolutionizing the younger minds.The young ignited minds in the present era want a solution for every query they meet with ,thus strengthening their everlasting ties with ethical issues. As the list of essential medicines increases, so does the laws for rational approaches to practices in clinical pharmacology take a new turn explaining the need of clinical trials for the development of newer medicinal products. Adverse drug reactions not only display the extended physiological and biochemical processes going on in the human body, but are also the evidence for unmonitored action of the drugs. Pharmacovigilance in the world is building new ways to formulate good clinical practice guidelines. The uniqueness of this book is in the explanation of detection, evaluation,monitoring and rectification of adverse drug reactions.The use of different scales to assess the causality and preventability makes the document even more interesting.
When the women's health issues are discussed, breast cancer raises to the top of the list. It is a widespread; invading the world, growing fast and has touched the life of nearly every woman. However, in some areas of the world it is rarely discussed. While in other areas it is considered as a political issue and billions of dollars are invested on research studies to understand the mystery associated with the disease and how to prevent women from getting breast cancer. Yet, no way to prevent breast cancer has been discovered. In the past, a diagnosis of breast cancer was often a sentence of death but the treatment advances have made it possible to offer a higher probability of cure. However, with early detection there are greater chances of curative treatment which are successful. Accordingly, the global communities draw attention toward early detection screening programs but without access to health care services, the value of early detection will be little. Some factors may experience barriers to appropriate health care and prevent women from getting screened
For the clinical management of acute and chronic pain, a possible therapeutic approach is the association between two or more drugs, which produce their biological effects on two or more different sites of action, in order to modulate directly or indirectly profile analgesic and adverse effects. Given the advantages of polypharmacology, in the drug discovery process has been established the strategy "one-molecule multiple targets". Considering that the various mediators involved in the circuit of pain represent potential targets for different pharmacological interventions, opioid-opioid or non-opioid-opioid multitarget ligands are potential drug candidates for the management of pain conditions. Multitarget ligands, able to act simultaneously on multiple opioid receptors subtypes, showed low propensity to induce side effects. Three chapters constitute this contribution; the first is focused on pain mechanisms and mediators and examine the main drugs clinically used. The second chapter list known multitarget opioid ligands. Finally, the third chapter deal with the LP1 pharmacological fingerprint, a suitable drug candidate for acute and chronic pain management.
Cancer is abnormal division of cells with the ability to invade other tissues. Cancer may be of more than 100 types depending on the origin of organ or cell types in which they start. Breast cancer begins in the cells of the lobule or ducts or in the stromal tissues .Genetic abnormality is also one of the main cause of breast cancer. Whereas prostrate cancer occurs due to mutation and may spread to other parts of body. Immunohistochemical and Immnofluorescence study of COX-2 expression in 29 cancer patient samples was performed. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an angiogenic factor i.e., strongly related to inflammatory diseases & the development of cancer& metastasis in several cancers. We observed the higher percentage expression of COX-2 in breast & prostate carcinoma using IHC in comparison to IF. Positive immunoreactivity to COX-2 was noted 62.5% by IHC & 72.2% by IF. This study suggests the possible role of the COX-2 in breast & prostate cancer patients .
The present study has focused on following aspects. First, an attempt has been made to examine the importance given to various types of risks being faced by Indian banks. Second, to study the risk management framework among banks, the study examines the size and ownership effect on the Risk Management Practices in banks. Third, we enumerate the growth and performance of banking sector in India since implementation of Basel I. Last issue undertaken in this study is to put forth the major challenges that are being faced by banks in India with the implementation of Basel II Accord and to suggest the procedures to face these challenges.
Oral cancer is believed to progress through sequential stages of premalignancies to invasive cancer. Once cancer is formed, the prognosis is poor. The 5-year survival rate of less than 50% is one of the worst among major human cancers. One of the essential keys to improving this gloomy prognosis lies in early diagnosis and proper management of premalignant lesions. A central dogma of carcinogenesis is that alteration to critical control genes underlies malignant transformation. A major focus of this thesis was to study early molecular pathways of oral cancer development. We use Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH), a molecular analysis that can detect the phenotypic change of genome and can work on minute archival material. This thesis has not only provided a comprehensive overview of oral cancer and premalignant lesions with description on their etiological factors and clinicopathological features, but also provided data to establish molecular progression models for oral cancers, and has yielded the first evidence that premalignancies with different molecular risks could be managed differently. The results not only provide insight into the mechanism of early cancer development.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the developing world, and the largest cancer killer among women in most developing countries including India. Although, various drugs have been developed for cervical cancer, treatment with these drugs often results in a number of undesirable side effects, toxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR). Therefore novel approaches for the aggressive treatment of cervical cancer are urgently needed to decrease the side effects as well as toxicity, frequency of administration of existing drugs, to overcome MDR and to increase the survival rates. The book describes the development and evaluation of nanoparticles loaded scaffolds for selective and targeted delivery of doxorubicin to cervical cancer cells for the effective chemotherapy of cervical cancer.
Cancer is becoming one of the most devastating diseases in the world. Reports from the International Agency for Research on Cancer predict that the global cancer rates will increase 50 percent by 2020. In western countries prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males. To reduce the suffering and death due to cancer is now one of the biggest challenges ever. About 60% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy as part of their disease management. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are being used successfully for both the palliative and curative treatments of cancer. The main aim of curative radiotherapy is to deliver a dose of radiation that is high enough to destroy the tumor cells while at the same time minimizing the damage to normal healthy tissues. Radiobiological parameters are used to evaluate and predict the outcome of a treatment plan. In this book, 3D-CRT and IMRT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient are compared by using a radiobiological model.
Under-nutrition is still a major challenge among developing countries. Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) has been implemented in emergency settings in a number of Countries with great success. It is now increasingly implemented in Non Emergency contexts in several developing countries. Ministries of health in various countries have integrated OTP into routine health services. Monitoring and evaluation is an essential component and should be in built in all programs. This book therefore, evaluates the Out-patient therapeutic program on Nutrition among children under five years of age. It also sheds light on malnutrition presentation while exploring effectiveness of the program during the second year of inception as well as intrinsic factors that influenced effectiveness of the program. This book will be of great help to health professionals working in the field of nutrition.
In spite of the fact that every living human being has experienced pain at one time or another, pain is a difficult phenomenon to define. Neuralgia is characterized by a sudden paroxysmal pain that is felt radiating down the peripheral distribution of the involved nerve. This pain is episodic, usually with periods of total remission between the painful episodes. This book is an effort to make the topic easier for better understanding of undergraduate and post-graduate students. The author has tried to include all the details and required information related to the topic. More emphasis is made on the diagnosis and management of the disease. So that the disease is diagnosed easily and earliest relief is provided to the patient.