The use of an elastomeric pump with a local anaesthetic is an effective, safe, patient and staff-friendly method for postoperative pain relief in breast cancer patients after axillary dissection and after primary breast reconstruction with a tissue expander. It is an effective method of postoperative pain treatment without adverse effects. Patients treated with a local anaesthetic have a lower frequency of chronic pain three months after the surgical procedure compared to patients treated with opioid intravenous analgesia.
Carcinogenesis is a multi-aetiological process involving alterations of key biomolecular markers. These are recognised by the humoral system and known as Tumour Associated Antigens (TAA) against which the humoral system mounts an auto-antibody response. Cancer cells are subject to two key mortality barriers (M1 & M2) as described in the “2-hit” hypothesis. These are overcome by p53 dysfunction in M1 and hTERT re-expression in M2. Auto-antibodies are produced in response to these two TAA. This book investigates the significance of the anti-p53 and anti-hTERT auto-antibody response. The initial literature review of anti-p53 auto-antibody in all cancers (1979-2010) forms the largest body of evidence of correlation between anti-p53 auto-antibody and p53 mutation to date. This is followed by results of our anti-p53 study and evaluation of all published studies of anti-p53 in colorectal cancer. Anti-hTERT has only been reported once, using molecular recombination to develop the hTERT antigen. The latter section of this book aims to develop a less restrictive technology for mass detection of anti-hTERT. This humoral response could enable earlier identification of CRC and impact prognosis.
This book will teach and give an overview of the risk factors of colo-rectal cancer.Colon cancer can be prevented if there is early detection for colon polyp ;it is apre-cancerous lesions arises at the lining mucosa of colon and or rectum and if not removed it will transformed after 8 to 10 years to cancerous.it is easy to prevent colon cancer disease unless you have a non modifiable risk factors e.g family history.nurses have a vital role in such diseases.
Cervical cancer is a major health problem throughout the world especially in developing countries including India.Cancer cervix is the most commom female malignancy in India.So the present study was conducted in Regional Cancer Centre IGMC Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, to see the response to induction chemotherapy(neoadjuvant chemotherapy)followed by Radiotherapy(RT)Vs RT alone in locally advanced carcinoma cervix.This was a prospective randomized trial.
Chemotherapy (CANCER) Just by listening to the name CANCER everyone gets afraid, and only one thing comes in their mind that is deadly disease leading to death. But gone are those days when people patients suffering from it had no treatment and had no way except death. Now a days due to advancements in technology we have got got hand full of techniques available as a cure to it. That means one way or the other you definitely are going to get rid of this disease. Which is a good news for cancer patients and hence are described in this book.
Through understanding of pain patho-physiology is the prime factor to deliver a radical therapy for a particular pain. Many a times we use to treat pain neither knowing the cause of such discomfort or how this is transmitting to the brain. Knowledge of the etiology of different types of pain and how they are interpreted by the central nervous system is very very important. This book will give a brief idea to the reader about the origin of different types of dental pain , involved pain transmitting pathways and the management of those condition in dental clinic. Mainly the pain assessment and management portion of this book are the assimilation of knowledge from most recently published articles in different international journals. whenever a pediatric dentist tries to deliver treatment to a child patient, the first and foremost aim of the doctor is to build a positive dental attitude of the patient. Successful pain management in each and every appointment helps get the desired behavior from the child.
Pain is one of the most common experiences and stressors in Critically Ill Patients. Uncontrolled pain triggers physical and emotional stress responses, Inhibits healing, Increases the risk for other complications, and Increases the length of stay in the Critical Care Unit. The critical care nurse has a unique and important role in Pain management which includes: Perform pain assessment, Provide patient teaching, Perform physical care, help relieve pain by administering pain-relieving interventions including both Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological approaches.
Cancer incidence risk, organ and effective dose of ninety (90) patients undergoing selected fluoroscopic procedures have been estimated. Organ and effective dose were estimated using Monte Carlo Code (PCXMC) with air kerma as input. Excess relative risk of site specific solid cancer and all solid cancers excluding thyroid and Non-melanoma skin cancers incidences were estimated using Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation VII Committee risk models. The mean effective dose was found to be 0.29 ± 0.07, 0.84 ± 0.13, 3.15 ± 0.44, 6.24 ± 0.7, 0.38 ± 0.05 mSv for urethrogram, barium swallow, barium meal, barium enema and myelogram examinations respectively. Longer radiation beam on time, high number of radiographs taken per patient and wide exposure beam area on the surface of the patient was found to contribute to increased doses in patient. Cancer incidence in patients of the same age was higher in women than in men except cancer of the colon which had higher incidence in men than in women and cancer of the liver which had equal incidences. Younger patients have a higher risk of incurring any type of cancer due to radiation exposure than older patients.
This book describes the crucial molecular targets of colorectal cancer. It is considered as a serious health problem in most developed countries and is the third leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Colorectal cancer affects >1 million people every year and is responsible for >.5 million cancer-related annual deaths. Generally it is a multi-step process involving three distinct stages, initiation that alters the molecular message of a normal cell, followed by promotion and progression that ultimately ends up with a phenotypically altered "transformed cell". The concept of multi-stage carcinogenesis involves the sequential acquisition of cellular mutations followed by expansion of the mutated clone within a population of cells. During the development of cancer there are numerous signalling pathways(PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, COX-2, iNOS, Apoptosis, JAK/STAT3)were dysregulated. Developing new, effective and less side effect chemotherapeutic drugs are the challenge for researcher's. So, understanding the molecular alterations during colon cancer will enable to develop more chemotherapeutic drugs for colon cancer.
Specific miRNA expression profile correlates with complete pathologic response, evaluated as Tumor Regression Grade according to Mandard classification on surgical specimens, in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Complete pathologic response represents the main predictive factor of better outcome in patient affected by locally advanced rectal cancer. So aforementioned signature may represent a new predictive factor of optimal response to treatment and better prognosis in this stage of disease.
Pancreatic Cancer – A Patient and His Doctor Balance Hope and Truth
Pancreatic Cancer – A Patient and His Doctor Balance Hope and Truth