Справочник - результат широкомасштабного статистического исследования употребительности словоизменительных форм английского глагола, которое было осуществлено большой группой научных работников из 45 вузов семи республик бывшего СССР. Данные справочника базируются на обследовании четырех массивов текстов (художественная проза, драма, научные и газетные тексты) общим объемом более 12 млн словоупотреблений. Анализу подлежали 287 глаголов, входящих в первую тысячу наиболее употребительных слов, и 805 образованных от них глаголов с послелогами. Материалы справочника могут быть использованы в курсах теоретической и практической грамматики английского языка, на практических занятиях по английскому языку, а также для отбора грамматического минимума и распределения его по годам обучения, для составления учебников и пособий по грамматике английского языка, в научной работе преподавателей и студентов. Предназначен для студентов, аспирантов и преподавателей английского языка.
Kangri (Hamirpuri) which is an SOV type language of the Indo-Aryan family is one of the variety of the various pahari dialects spoken in the low hills of Himachal Pradesh. The dialectal variation in most of North India is proverbial. It is said, “The language changes every 12 kilometres.” This book tries to outline the domain of verbs in Morphology on the basis of their canonical structure. Following Katamba, this book exhibits the origin and application of verbs in day to day life of the people who use Kangri(Hamirpuri) language. It has been shown that the verb is not an optional operation. Rather, it holds the certain morphological features of verbs in syntactic and semantic interpretations.
Arusa dialect is among the three Maasai dialects spoken in Tanzania. Other dialects are Kisongo and Parakuyu. There evolved linguistic differences between these dialects to the extent that one may be interested to know how they vary. For that reason, the knowledge gap developed, hence justifying the need to investigate how Arusa verbs differ from Maasai popular verbs. Before embarking on a comparative study to find out the differences, it is important to know the morphology of a vital aspect like verb system of these dialects. To start with, the author devoted his time and effort to find out the contemporary verb morphology of the Arusa dialect. The author identified two types of main verbs, namely Class I and Class II verb categories. In addition, the author analysed other more auxiliary verbs that were not identified by other authors who studied Maasai and Arusa. In further analysis carried out, the author demonstrated the verb template for each class of verbs herein as well as the roots of Arusa verbs. It is found that the Arusa dialect varies morphosyntactically from other dialects, for example, in verb stems, morphemes, tone placement, and verb extensions.
Many years ago morphology was an ignored aspect in linguistics. Recently it has become a great interest of linguists. It is defined as the concern of word formation in different uses and constructions. Today, where the interest to study morphology is increasing, this work is appearing consisting of an interesting aspect of a specific language, namely Gedeo which is one of the Ethiopian languages. It is spoken in the Southern part of the country and is from a Cushitic family in afro-aesthetic phylum. Of the different aspects of morphology only verb morphology is the main focus of this work. To establish a good ground before its analysis, the overview of phonological sketch is discussed briefly. Then verb inflection, verb derivation, and negation of independent verb form and derived verb form are treated to a wider extent than the works presented before now. The provided information here may be used as an important input for related or other studies directly and indirectly. Therefore, scholars of a linguistic field from the over whole world can be interested to learn such new features of this specific language because it adds value for the study of universal language of the world.
This monograph covers basic aspects of the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of Guren? (Gur, Niger-Congo) language. The work of a native speaker, it is written in accessible language,perfect for beginners,university and college students, the general researcher,and all other non-specialists who are interested in learning some basic information about the Gur languages in general and Guren? in particular. This book provides important insights into some of the interesting morphological features of the verb in the Guren? (Gur Niger-Congo) language. It outlines and presents the information in a very straightforward and concise manner, and will be a valuable resource for linguists interested in verb typology. The structure of the verb, its phrase, derivational and inflectional suffixes,morphemes,stems,and roots are discussed.An under-studied feature of Gur languages is their use of verb particles to perform various kinds of grammatical functions within the verb phrase.This monograph presents the first detailed description and discussion of such a system.Up-to-date sociolinguistic information is also presented.
This brand new edition Berlitz Handbook is designed to teach the rudiments of German verb function and structure. It features clear explanations of how the verb system works, along with practical examples demonstrating how to use the different types of verbs correctly. All verbs are categorised by type and there is an index of 2,500 verbs with their English meanings, making it an outstanding reference tool. It is ideal for students of all levels and will complement any Berlitz self-teach course.
This book is about exploring the English verb, not explaining it. The difference is important. "Explaining" assumes one person knows, and the other does not. It suggests a one-way process, which starts from a place decided by the person who knows. "Exploring" suggests the possibility of going wrong, the need to re-trace our steps, a process of guessing, checking and discovering together. Some of our guesses are right, and others wrong. The emphasis is on a dynamic and co-operative process. So often "explaining grammar" is a waste of time, which confuses rather than helps. I hope teachers will be influenced by this book to change the emphasis of work that they do with their students from explaining to exploring.
One of the most effective skills in studying English is the ability to feel confident in using different grammar structures. The reference guide helps to find your way through the maze of numerous English verb forms in a short time. Such categories as voice, mood, basic verb forms, sentence structures are defined and explained in a form of tables with several examples to each rule. The combined chart of tenses is given in the guide too.
One of the most eff ective skills in studying English is the ability to feel confi dent in using diff erent grammar structures. The reference guide helps to fi nd your way through the maze of numerous English verb forms in a short time. Such categories as voice, mood, basic verb forms, sentence structures are defi ned and explained in a form of tables with several examples to each rule. The combined chart of tenses is given in the guide too. Один из основных навыков в изучении иностранного языка - увереннос
The region stretching along the Kashmir province of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India and the Northern Areas region of Pakistan is home to great ethno-linguistic diversity. A long history of language contact has often obscured the original linguistic differences between various languages spoken in the region, and sometimes it is almost impossible to tell which language has influenced which language. As is the case in other parts of the subcontinent, multilingualism is a norm in this region. Balti is the prevailing language all over Baltistan. Although the real home of Balti is Baltistan, formerly constituting a part of the Jammu and Kashmir State, but now its greater part has gone to Pakistan. But so far as Balti speakers are concerned a good number of them are settled in the Kargil district of the Ladakh region. The book is about Balti spoken in Kargil region of Jammu and Kashmir.
Dholuo Morphosyntactics is a significant contribution towards the ongoing search for a theory of Universal Grammar.Dholuo is an African Language spoken in Kenya.This book presents a comprehensive analysis of Dholuo verb morphology in Chomsky's Minimalist Program.It explores the Verb system and the feature checking processes of the functions on the verb.Notably, the language does not mark tense; instead,the verbal system is based on aspectual distinction contrasted by syntactic tone.Extending Linguistics research to Non European Languages has led to new discoveries in theory gaps and enhanced theory formulation in responding to the dynamics of describing the languages of the world.It is a useful resource for Linguists and researchers in Nilotic Languages.
One of the most eff ective skills in studying English is the ability to feel confi dent in using diff erent grammar structures. The reference guide helps to fi nd your way through the maze of numerous English verb forms in a short time. Such categories as voice, mood, basic verb forms, sentence structures are defi ned and explained in a form of tables with several examples to each rule. The combined chart of tenses is given in the guide too.Один из основных навыков в изучении иностранного языка - уверенность в использовании различных грамматических структур. Данный справочник поможет вам быстро разобраться в многочисленных глагольных формах английского языка. Такие важные категории, как залог, наклонение, формы глаголов, структуры предложений, описаны и представлены в виде таблиц, также дается по несколько примеров для каждого правила. Помимо того в книге приводится сводная таблица времен английского глагола.Вся книга написана на английском языке.
This study presents a new analysis of tense, mood and aspect (TMA) categories in the verb system of Spoken Israeli. This research was motivated by the fact that the traditional analysis of the Israeli verb system as a tense-based system shows a large number of exceptions, and many of the spoken forms are therefore inexplicable. It was thus suspected that the Israeli verb system is based on other grammatical properties rather than tense. This study is based on a corpus, containing authentic Israeli speech as used by native speakers. Based on these conversations, an alternative analysis of the Israeli verb system as aspect-based is proposed in this book. This alternative covers all the exceptions that cannot be explained within the traditional approach. Furthermore, several additional points are observed in this study regarding the Israeli verb system: the absence of passive forms from the verb system, the derivation of imperative forms, the distribution of verbal patterns, and the presence of many concatenated verb constructions.