This book is interesting in bladder carcinoma. It describes the types of cancer bladder, causes, pathogenesis and pathology. How patient complaints and method of diagnosis? The art of management including; role of Surgery, Radiotherapy, and Chemotherapy. Treatment of invasive bladder cancer remains a triple challenge: first, the eradication of local disease, second, the elimination of potential micrometastases, and third, the maintenance of the best possible quality of life without compromising survival. Drawbacks and complications of each therapy should be considered. How can cure cancer with preserving the natural bladder? Are all patients candidate for bladder preserving approach? Targeting therapy and high technology of radiotherapy like IMRT and proton therapy are promising treatments and may consider the spine of treatment in the future.
Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. It is the most common urological cancer; it comprises a significant part of urologists' work. The term bladder cancer is used to describe collectively tumors of urinary bladder urothelial origin which exhibit diverse biological behavior, ranging from relatively benign to highly malignant. Thus, bladder cancer can be without serious clinical consequences for the patient who has an isolated superficial bladder tumor, or it can be a lethal disease. Eighty per cent of bladder cancers are superficial at presentation in that they have not invaded into the muscle. The remaining 20% are muscle-invasive, which carry a much worse prognosis. Bladder cancer occurs after the fifth decade and more frequently in men than in women (sex ratio 3:1). The incidence of bladder cancer is highest in industrialized countries. It has been associated mainly with smoking, but also with occupational exposure to carcinogens from aniline dyes, paints, rubber, and chronic irritation of the bladder mucosa due to bladder stones, or schistosomiasis.
Bladder cancer represents a global health problem. It ranks ninth in worldwide cancer incidence. In Egypt, bladder cancer constitutes 30% of all cancers.Early detection of bladder cancer is a challenge, considering that disease progression results in significant morbidity and mortality. There are several potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer but cytology is still the most accurate diagnostic method, although sensitivity is not enough high. sFas is produced and released by bladder urothelial carcinoma cells and urinary sFas levels could be an independent predictor of the presence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary sFas as a non-invasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer. The present study included 87 subjects, classified into malignant, benign and normal cases. The urine supernatant was used for determination of sFas by ELISA. In the present study sFas was higher in malignant than benign and control cases. sFas sensitivity was 75.5 % and specificity was 81.6 %. The combined use of urine cytology with urinary sFas increased urine cytology sensitivity while decreased its specificity.
Bladder cancer is a global health issue. In the endemic areas of Egypt, schistosomiasis is a leading cause of bladder cancer. Prognostic indicators are required to further identify which tumor should be treated aggressively early on, in order to improve surveillance. The Fas-Fas Ligand (Fas-FasL) system has been recognized as a major pathway for the induction of apoptosis in cells and tissues. Fas-mediated apoptosis is deeply involved in cancer cell death, brought about by the immune system. The interaction of Fas and Fas Ligand contributes to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and natural killer-cell mediated cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study was performed to assess the importance of the apoptosis markers (Fas and FasL) in bilharzial versus non-bilharzial bladder cancer, in order to detect the possible diagnostic &/or prognostic potentials of this factor.
The valley of Kashmir is one of the divisions of Jammu and Kashmir State, situated in the Himalayas. In Kashmir valley where incidences of almost all types of organ cancers have shown a drastic increase in last couple of decades particularly GIT and lung cancers, the bladder cancer figures no less in this deadly race. As the valley of Kashmir is heavily burdened with cancers and the molecular aspects still remain unexplored to a large extent. This book is thoroughly research based to find the incidence of common cancers and first initiative to investigate the role of major oncogenes in urinary bladder cancer.The book may also be of interest to busy clinicians who want to update their knowledge of recent advances in bladder cancer biology and how these may apply to future practice. This book is designed as a primer for those who are involved with bladder cancer patients or the study of cancer. It is intended to supply sufficient background knowledge to allow the reader to seek more detailed information from the numerous textbooks and web resources in bladder oncology The aim and scope of this book is to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of carcinogenesis.
Urinary tumor markers that help in the early detection of bladder cancer promise a particular improvement in sensitivity, specificity and convenience over conventional, invasive diagnostic tests. This book present our research work which assessed the diagnostic efficacy of urinary survivin RNA for early detection of bladder cancer. The study included 78 bladder cancer patients, 61 patients with Schistosomal cystitis and 50 healthy volunteers. All underwent serological assessment of Schistosomiasis antibody, urine cytology, and survivin RNA estimation by qualitative and semiquantative reverse transcriptase- nested polymerase chain reaction in urothelial cells from voided urine. The study revealed significant difference in the positivity rate of survivin RNA among the 3 groups. Survivin RNA mean rank using semi quantitative method was increased in the malignant group vs the other groups. The best cutoff value for survivin RNA was 0.91. Using this cutoff value, survivin RNA sensitivity was 78.2% and specificity was 100%. Urine cytology sensitivity improved when combined with survivin RNA. We conclude that survivin RNA is a promising urine marker for bladder cancer detection.
Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers of the urinary tract and a major problem worldwide, it is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract, the fourth most common cancer in men, and seventh most common cancer in women. The main known risk factors for bladder cancer include cigarette smoking, exposure to industrially related aromatic amines, and intake of drugs such as phenacetin, chlornaphrazine, and cyclophosphamide. These exposures lead to DNA damage which, if remained unrepaired, may result in unregulated cell growth and even cancer.
Bladder cancer is a common problem especially in the elderly. When the disease involves the muscle, surgical removal is necessary and is associated with good chance of cure. Radiotherapy forms an alternative curative option which allows for the chance of bladder preservation though historically has been associated with inferior outcomes when compared to surgery. Over the last decade technological advances in radiotherapy notably have reopened the debate as to whether modern radiotherapy can at last present a credible alternative to surgery in those wishing bladder preservation. Dr Mangar presents some of his research findings looking at how to address the concept of bladder motion during radiotherapy which can sometimes result in a ‘geographical miss’ of the target volume and compromise clinical outcomes. He considers some novel ideas on image guidance including the placement of fiducial markers, and explores the concept of predictive organ localisation. This book will be of value not only to Clinical Oncologists but will also appeal to urologists, radiotherapy physicists and therapy radiographers alike, as well as those with an interest in novel treatments for bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer is an important public health problem in Egypt which constitutes 30% of all cancers. Cytology could serve as an excellent test for screening but it is of lower sensitivity. Early diagnosis is critical for maximizing the cure rate of bladder cancer patients, so many urine-based tumor markers have been developed for use in detecting and monitoring bladder cancers. Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of RAR?2 tumor suppressor gene is a major event in the origin of many cancers. In the present study detection of methylated RAR?2 gene was done in the urine of 183 subjects including normal, benign and malignant cases using MS-PCR technique. Results revealed marked urinary RAR?2 promoter hypermethylation in malignant group as compared to benign and normal groups. The sensitivity of detection of RAR?2 promoter hypermethylation was (83.6%) and the specificity was (89.7%), while the sensitivity of urine cytology was (52.2%). Combined use of detection of urinary RAR?2 promoter hypermethylation with urine cytology increased the sensitivity of cytology from 52.2% to 89.5%.
Bladder cancer is a major health problem in Egypt which constitutes 30% of all cancers. Cytology could serve as an excellent test for screening but it is of lower sensitivity. Early diagnosis is critical for maximizing the cure rate of bladder cancer , so many urine-based tumor markers have been developed for use in detecting and monitoring bladder cancers. Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of APC tumor suppressor gene is a major event in the origin of many cancers. In the present study detection of methylated APC gene was done in the urine of 183 subjects including normal, benign and malignant cases using MS-PCR technique. Results revealed marked urinary APC promoter hypermethylation in malignant group as compared to benign and normal groups. The sensitivity of detection of APC promoter hypermethylation was (57%) and the specificity was (98%), while the sensitivity of urine cytology was (44%).Combined use of detection of urinary APC promoter hypermethylation with urine cytology increased the sensitivity of cytology from 44% to 74%. So, detection of urinary APC promoter hypermethylation appears to be a promising marker for detecting new onset of bladder cancer.
The aim of this book chapter is to present the latest basic research on the role of polymorphism in the promoter of Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and risk of bladder cancer. MIF gene lies on chromosome 22q11.2 and regulation is controlled by the two polymorphic sites in the promoter region. The first site consists of the CATT repeat at -794 which repeats 5-8 times and the second site is a single nucleotide polymorphism at -173(G/C) which associated with enhanced promoter activity in some cancer cell lines and the activity is proportional increased MIF levels in serum. MIF enhances of macrophage transcription, activation and viability, coupled with its inhibitory effects on anti-tumor cell cytotoxic lymphocytes, suggests that MIF overexpression in developing malignancies may act in concert to facilitate increased tumor growth which presents an important link between inflammation and cancer due to its pro-inflammatory role. MIF binds to extracellular domain of CD74with high affinity and initiates a signaling cascade.
The Guide to Living with Bladder Cancer Large Print Edition
Bladder cancer is the second most common urological malignancy after prostate cancer. Over all it is the fourth common cancer of all malignancy in male and the eighth most common cancers in female. Check cystoscopy in patients with recurrent bladder tumors creates a large urological workload. To date rigid cystoscopy has been the main method of followup but flexible cystoscopy is becoming increasingly popular because it can be carried out under local anaesthesia on an out-patient basis.By transabdominal ultrasound scanning of the filled bladder it is possible to examine the surface of the bladder urothelium in the outpatient clinic and in certain proportion of patients presenting initially with an non-invasive,low grade tumour could be followed by ultrasound alone.