The book is a seroepidemiological study of human brucellosis among febrile patients in Khartoum State, Sudan. It highlights a common but under-diagnosed disease. Many patients suffer from brucellosis but are diagnosed as having other infectious diseases commonly malaria and typhoid fever. Almost all the risk factors for brucellosis are available in the area but are not catered for. The book elucidates the dimension of the disease so that the health policy makers can do something in brucellosis control.
Poverty is a complex multidimensional problem, Sudan, suffered from political and economic instability as well as ecological problems, which aggravate the situation by having high poverty rate in comparison to the neighboring countries Poverty in the Sudan is deeply ingrained and is largely rural. Excessive and continued rural migration pressure to Khartoum State had exceeded social services capacity with concomitant increasing poverty in the urban centers of the state. Low-income employment relationship and low level of education of household heads had bad effects on their economic and social situation. Large numbers of population in the state, high spending on food items in the rural and urban areas in Khartoum state with under nutrition. People with low income included government employees. Low-income people who fell below poverty line were in rural Khartoum areas. Inequity in income distribution concentrated in the state, especially in Khartoum north areas. Shortage in access to basic needs service, particularly drinking water, free education and insurance medical services. Negative coping mechanisms have been used by most of the respondents and had complicated poverty effects
This book is an attempt to make a comprehensive systematic study of some Cucurbits in Khartoum State.It is studies the morphology,histology and genetic diversity of some Cucurbits in the study area. It is compares morphological, histological and molecular methods as tools of identification of Cucurbits. This provides a comparison between traditional Taxonomy which is based on morphology and modern Taxonomy which is based on DNA characterization.To compare the utility of the DNA marker system for evaluating similarity.
The U.S.-led multilateral efforts – in the form of sanctions – to resolve the cycle of human rights violations in Sudan have so far yielded limited success partly due to Chinese support for President Bashir. This diplomatic cover for Khartoum should cause us to ponder the role of China’s energy investments in the context of human rights violations in Sudan and whether Beijing’s support for the dictatorial regime in Khartoum is tacitly ignored by Western powers. These questions merit attention because China’s penetrating influence in global geopolitics is crucial not only to resolving the dilemma in Sudan so also the ailing global economy. In this view, many explanations fail to explicitly tell us the nature of the intricate intimacy between the normative influence of social psychology, human rights violations in Sudan, and energy security policies. I had hope that this book which bridges these shortfalls in the literature should be particularly useful to students and professionals in the fields of international relations and politics, or those who may be interested in the sub-fields of energy security and human rights.
The establishment of psychiatric services in Sudan is an interesting experiment in a developing country. Prior to World War II there were hardly any organized psychiatric services (Baasher, 1975). By 1950, the Clinic for Nervous Disorders, Khartoum North, was well established and the Kober Institution was built later to cater for 120 forensic psychiatric patients. This was followed by the establishment of four psychiatric units in provincial capitals at Wad Madni, Port-Sudan, El Obeid and Atbara . In 1964, a 30-bed psychiatric ward was built in Khartoum general hospital. Psychiatry in Sudan began in the 1950s under the guidance of the late Professor El Tigani El Mahi. He pioneered, among other things, rural services and the open-door policy. His successor, Dr Taha A. Baasher, shouldered the responsibility and extended services to more peripheral areas of the country. He established the Mental Health Association of Sudan and the Sudanese Association of Psychiatrists. In 1971, Omdurman Psychiatric Hospital (El Tigani El Mahi Hospital) was established as the national mental hospital (El Faki, 1997).This book gives brief description about mental health and psychiatric services in Sudan
Rift Valley Fever(RVF)is a mosquito borne disease of increasing global importance, affecting animals & human. Following the emergence of RVF virus in Khartoum State in 2007,this study was undertaken to assess ecological elements of mosquito related to transmission of RVF in Khartoum State. Emergence rates,Survival and parity rates were estimated. Survival of blood-fed female mosquitoes exceeded the intrinsic incubation period of the viruses inside mosquito vector. RVF virus was detected in Aedes vexans and Culex quinquefasciatus. Ae.vexans was suggestively the main vector of RVF during the last outbreak.We argue that two scenarios of transmission initiation might occur during the outbreak:1.Arrival scenario: where Ae.vexans had just arrived as adult mosquito and was infected with RVFV so horizontal transmission cycle initiated;or 2.Establishing scenario:that Ae.vexans was already well established in the area,then diapauses infected eggs were hatched and the vertical transmission cycle initiated. Ae.vexans might pass the virus to Culex via vertebrate host which established the zoonotic cycle,when the rainy season came mosquitoe density elevated transmission threshold of the outbreak
Coagulation disorders and abnormal platelet activation are frequent findings in hematological malignancies. A hypercoagulable state is induced by malignant cells interacting directly with haemostatic system and activating the coagulation cascade. This is descriptive, prospective analytical case- control study done in Radiation & Isotopes Center Khartoum (RICK) to determine the haemostatic abnormalities and vascular damage of hematological malignancies among the major Sudanese patients.Hemostasis studies shown that, there were decreased level of fibrinogenand antithrombin III, vWf and PAI-1 were significantly elevated in ALL and in AML patients. significantly low platelet counts in AML, CLL and increased in CML and CGL ( CML ph positive) in related to control group. D-dimers was positive in 79 % of patients.platelet aggregation in response to ADP, Collagen, and Epinephrine agonists was decreased in ALL, AML and MM, and in variable in CML and NHL, and increased in CLL and HL.Markers of coagulation and platelet defect was clearly observed in hematological malignancies patients, also indication of fibrinolysis and endothelial activation were confirmed
The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goitre. The endemicity of goitre in Sudan was firstly reported by Woodman in 1952. Although in the Sudan IDD control programmes and support for the universal salt iodization strategy began in the mid 1970s, no progress in implementation of the strategy was noted until 2006. Indeed, most of the iodine supplementation programmes, if not all, have now ceased to exist. In 2006 the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimated that only 1% of all Sudanese households had access to iodized salt. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in The South), Atbara and Dongula (in the North), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age of 6-12 years old.
This research is a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea in HIV infected patients in Khartoum State, Sudan between the years 2007 – 2010. The study was conducted on 657 HIV infected and non-infected patients, of the study sample 423 were HIV positive patients. The HIV positive patients in the sample were divided into two categories the first on ART and the second without ART. Stool samples were collected from patients to diagnose parasitic infections by examination of a single stool specimen as fresh wet mount preparation, formol-ether concentration technique and staining. CD4 counts were recorded to assess the status of HIV infection vis-a-vis parasitic infection. The results showed that diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected than in HIV non-infected patients. Patients with chronic diarrhea had lower CD4 cell counts. The study reached very significant and important conclusions in the association between CD4+ cell count, intestinal parasites and diarrhea which all can lead to better diagnose for the treatment of HIV infected patients.
According to the data of the Ministry of Animal Resources Sudan maintained about 3.9 million heads of camels from a total 138 million heads of different livestock (2006). Despite the big number of livestock Sudan imports processed powdered milk at a time when the milk produced by camels does not find place in the total milk production and might even be wasted. This initiated this study during the period December 2006 through April 2007 to assess camel milk production and consumption in Khartoum State. The study aimed at assessing the possibilities of increasing awareness on camel milk nutritive and other values, define retarding factors and probing possibilities of future intensive camel milk production systems especially as camel farming is coming up in Khartoum State. The methodology followed by the study included questionnaires to camel owners and producers in Khartoum State. Visits and interviewing of a specialized shop owner for selling fresh and fermented camel milk was made. A visit was also made to the Food Research Center and the electronic library (University of Khartoum).
Zinc is one of the most important trace elements that is required for proper growth and health. Being a cofactor of over 200 enzymes and a structural protein in a large number of zinc finger proteins, zinc serves a wide range of roles in human body. In our study Zinc level was found to be significantly decreased in febrile seizures in all previous as well as in present study. Since zinc levels were also found to be significantly low in patients with septic meningitis and cerebral malaria so better response may be expected if we supplement zinc preparation while continuing other treatment in all these diseases.
DED IN EL OBEID As an activity of DED- German Development Service the NGO Advisory Office El Obeid is one of three NGO Advisory Offices countrywide having two equivalents in Juba and Khartoum and our headquarter in Khartoum. The NGO Advisory Office El Obeid started its work in 2003. The NGO Advisory Program in El Obeid aims at strengthening NGOs, CBOs, associations or other registered local organizations as well as civil society groups in the process of formation and being registered. Their capacities are developed concerning development of strategies and planning, implementation, networking, monitoring and evaluation of their programs which strive to improve the livelihoods of their diverse target groups. Through building their capacities organizations are aimed to be enabled to perform better with better impact on their target groups and to develop organizational sustainability.
This study was compiled at Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Center (JDC), Khartoum, Sudan, with Juba university-department of Dermatology on 125 patients, during the period July 8 - October 3, 2001.The objective of the study was to identify the prevalence of the common cutaneous manifestations (CM) of diabetic patients, attending outpatient clinics of JDC in Khartoum city. The design was based on clinical studies, i.e. descriptive. A 125 case of Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients showing CM, out of 1112 of known DM cases, was considered as the study population. the CM are detectable in 11.24% of the diabetic population. Fungal infections (48.8%) were the most common manifestations, followed by bacterial infections (26.4%). High prevalence of vitiligo (5.6%); Eczema, seborrheic dermatitis and urticaria (16.8, 2.4 and 0.8%, respectively) were unusual features. Some of the cutaneous markers of DM, like Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD), Granuloma annular (GA), acquired perforating dermatoses, and scleredema were not encountered in this study.
Brucellosis is prevalent in the camel-rearing pastoral communities of Afar region, Ethiopia, and this zoonotic disease is causing extensive camel production losses and ailments in herdsmen and their family members. A work was done to determine the prevalence and risk factors allied with the occurrence of brucellosis in Afar region, Ethiopia. Camels and herders were included in the investigation and the overall prevalence of camel and human brucellosis was 7.6% and 15%, respectively, by complement fixation test. Microbiological techniques were used for the cultural detection and identification of the Brucella organism and it was isolated from raw camel milk samples indicating that the social custom of raw milk consumption of pastoral community is the main risk factor for human brucellosis. The overall findings of this investigation indicated that human and camel brucellosis is widely distributed in the districts of Afar and the author recommended further studies on serotyping and molecular detection of the organism in order to attempt development of vaccine against local strains of Brucella and hence, design sustainable control and prevention measure.