Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in women,it is comprises approximately 12% of all cancer in women worldwide and the second most common type, after breast cancer, with about 200,000 deaths annually and 500,000 new cases per annum. Persistent infection with one or more carcinogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important etiologic factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the progression to cervical cancer. HPV DNA has been detected in up to 99.7% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide.The carcinogenic effect of the "high-risk" HPVs, as defined by their documented association with invasive carcinomas, is thought to be mediated by two viral oncoprotein, E6 and E7, through their action of inactivating the function of two important cellular tumor suppressor, p53 and pRb. It has been demonstrated that the E6 oncoprotein interacts with p53 to promote its degradation, whereas the E7 oncoprotein form complex with Rb, leading to its functional inactivation as well as accelerated degradation. These synergistic effects result in a deregulated cell cycle control and are thus believed to be critically important in HPV-induced carcinogene
The presence of high risk HPV that were possibly responsible of cervical cancer in the Sudan.Therefore, this book invesigated the possible relation between High risk Human Papilloma virus and cervical cancer in addition to how far HR-HPV contribute to gynecologic compalains among Sudanese Women. This in addition to frquencies of other bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections that may present in cervical smears. Furthermore, Pat. test, the most common measure in this context was evaluted for its specificity and sensitivity measures in comparison to In-Situ Hybridization as gold standard technique for Identification of HPV.
Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease and incidence rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present half of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of molecular biology techniques. HPV prevalence among the men tested was high. Of the men who tested positive, nearly one third presented with HPV 16 followed by HPV 18 and HPV 45 and the low risk HPV 6. Regarding EBV positivity, half of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type. Nearly one third of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV. Penile carcinoma etiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis
This book is about oral cancer (oral squamous cell carcinoma). This disease is one of the top five killers in Pakistan. It is also a major killer in the neighbouring countries. The incidence rate of oral cavity cancer in Karachi is estimated to be among the highest in the world. Well known risk factors for oral cancer are smoking and alcohol while alternative chewing habits are implicated in sub continent. As many individuals are exposed to these risk factors, only a small proportion develops oral cancer. This suggests that other factors may also play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Recently, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p53 gene mutation has been shown to play a role in the development of oral cancer. This work is a collection of information gathered through personal research experiences and interaction with oral surgeons and pathologist, over a period of ten years. This book covers all the essential topics such as epidemiology, etiology, pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of patients suffering from oral cancer. It is hoped that this work would be of some use to researchers, students as well as oral surgeons engaged in dealing with oral cancer.
The presence or absence of nodal metastasis has a great impact on the prognosis and survival of patients with head and neck cancer. The risk of occult metastasis is related to the method by which the lymph nodes are evaluated. It is possible to reduce the risk of undiagnosed metastasis with accurate imaging techniques and thus probably reduce the number of elective neck treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of clinical palpation, CT Scan, Ultrasound and Ultrasound guided FNAC in prediction of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. our study came with the conclusion that the palpation, CT Scan and US are equally accurate but the US-FNAC is the most accurate technique in assessing the cervical lymphnode metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
In the recent years, prevalence of HIV in Pakistan has arisen from 85000 in 2005 to 96000 in 2007. It has taken the form of a concentrated epidemic in two high risk groups, namely, injection drug users and males who have sex with males. Similarly the number of Pakistani women infected with HPV is elevating dramatically. Screening for HPV in Pakistani female patients is not commonly practiced, and as a consequence, HPV prevalence and its correlation with cervical cancer is unknown. This book, therefore, provides information on the prevalent subtypes of HIV-1 in Pakistan population particularly the high-risk groups and earthquake 2005 affectees. It demonstrates the divergence patterns of HIV in Pakistan, UAE and Kenya population. We also discussed the prevalence of HPV infection and genotypes of HPV in healthy sexually active women presenting in gynecology clinic for evaluation and in Pakistani women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma. Our findings emphasize on the need of country-wide screening, treatment and increasing awareness about HIV, its mode of transmission and ways of prevention. Our analysis also underscores the demand to implement regular HPV screening for Pakistani women.
Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Defective cervical barrier is a major cause of preterm labour. This hypothesis was assessed immunologically by using flow cytometry to quantify leucocytes subpopulation in the cervix, morphologically by cervical length and volume as assessed by 3D ultrasound, and the cervical blood circulation was assessed by 3D ultrasound with power Doppler in patients at high risk of preterm labour. Immunologically, the most prevalent cervical leukocyte was the macrophage. Macrophages and the rest of leukocyte types in general were fewer in high risk patients than in normal pregnant controls. Morphologically, this study showed a significant association between cervical length and preterm labour, but not cervical volume. Also, there is increase in the vascularisation of the cervix in preterm labour patients. This book should be especially useful to Obstetricians, General Practitioners, young doctors, women in fertile age and researchers in the medical field.
Fully revised and updated, Burghardts landmark text on colposcopy and cervical pathology once again sets a new standard in the field. It offers specialists complete instruction in colposcopic procedures, as well as the histopathologic background needed to reach an accurate diagnosis. From equipment and techniques, to detection of normal and abnormal findings, to differential diagnosis and therapeutic guidelines, this book is unrivalled in the literature. It is indispensable for all physicians who perform colposcopy in everyday practice.Special features of the fourth edition: More than 400 oversized, high-quality colposcopic photographs depicting a wide range of common and rare conditions with astounding visual clarity Updated information on the central role of the human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and HPV vaccines to prevent itNew chapters on colposcopy of the vulva, vagina, and perianal region and the common etiology of lesions at these sites Current international guidelines and updated nomenclature based on the 14th World Congress of the International Federation for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (IFCPC) and the 2014 WHO Classification of Tumors of Female Reproductive Organs The combined expertise of authors trained in both clinical gynecology and histopathology in one unique, didactic atlasFocusing throughout on the integrated presentation of colposcopic findings with their underlying pathology, this book offers a full understanding of morphologic appearance and clinical diagnosis. It is essential for gynecologists and obstetricians, gynecologic oncologists, pathologists, residents, fellows, trainees, and other physicians working toward the prevention, early detection, and the best possible treatment outcomes in cervical carcinoma.
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem of women in low income countries like Nigeria. Globally 1.4 million women live with the disease and 7 million people may have precancerous changes. Eighty percent of the 493,000 annual new cases and 80-85% of annual deaths from cervical cancer occur in Low Income Countries (LIC) having less than 5% of the global cancer resources. In Nigeria 9,922 cases are diagnosed annually and 8,030 die. These figures will increase by about 25% in 10 years. The incidence rate ranging from 25 to 30 per 100,000 women is 5-6 times higher than the incidence in High Income Countries. Affected women come with advanced disease posing great challenge to the struggling health system. The disease is considered a ‘Sexually Transmitted disease’ with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the necessary cause. Nigerian women of all ages have a high HPV prevalence of 26.3% due to many determinants and co-factors like early sexual debut, multiple sex partners, low condom use, high parity, high incidence of other Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV, poverty and illiteracy.This book will serve as guide for planners of national policy on cervical cancer prevention
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infection. Because Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the causal factors in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection is an important step towards developing strategies for prevention. The aim of the present study was to examine the HPV prevalence and distribution of high risk HPV 16 and HPV 18 in cervical smears in a sample of Kashmiri women attending a gynecological outpatient Department at Lal Ded Hospital Srinagar and also to explore the determinants of the infection. The samples that were positive for HPV DNA were subsequently assessed for high-risk consensus primers, types 16 and 18. The overall HPV prevalence as observed in our study was 13.8% among our sample of Kashmiri females. The high risk HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 10.5% of the entire sample. HPV-16 was the more common type detected than HPV18). The prevalence of HPV infection in Kashmiri women is similar as observed in other states of India. The age pattern of HPV prevalence of the study group showed a general decrease.
This Book is the result of my candidature for the Master of Medical Philosophy (2yr higher research degree) at the University of Sydney. In it is presented an exhaustive summary of the risk and treatment factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the lip and analysis of original data from a 27 year dataset of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Westmead Hospital, Sydney Australia. The literature review includes a comprehensive summary of treatment outcomes for lip cancer. The original data analysis employs survival analysis and the use of a novel technique known as prognostic risk modelling. This book is useful for clinicians and researchers and those with a general interest in cancer.
Sex workers are the most marginalised and stigmatised group of women. The nature of the industry of “selling sex” to multiple sexual partners has a ripple effect on the health of people involved in the sex work cycle. Sex workers are considered to be a high risk group in the acquisition and transmission of STIs which include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Out of fear of being ridiculed at health care facilities, are unable to visit health facilities for routine health check-ups resulting in delayed health intervention. The monograph seeks to describe the prevalence of abnormal pap-smear among sex workers in Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, describe the difference between Pap smear results between HIV positive and negative sex workers. However, further studies are required to explore the sexual health of sex workers that may influence a review on the National Cervical Cancer Screening Policy to take into consideration the needs of high risk population, such as sex workers.
Human Papillomavirus infections has currently become a global challenge especially among the young adults. This has been postulated to be due to lack of vital knowledge about HPV infection in all aspects among the youth. This book therefore focuses on the gaps in knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP)of students in health related courses towards Human Papillomavirus among the University students in health related courses. Students taking health science related courses are always in constant contact with patients in either hospital setting or in homes and it is therefore important for them to have a clear understanding of certain infectious diseases like HPV. The book shades light on KAP towards STI's among the university students and broaden the understanding of various infections that can be harmful to their health. Health literacy is a key tool that can increase empowerment on sexual health and is vital to increasing the public ability to prevent further spread of HPV, hence acquiring good practices.
This research was focused on the prevalence and significance of HPV types in cervical cancer in Chennai, South India. The study was carried out by analyzing HPV by PCR in the biopsy of cervical cancer patients. The molecular pathogenesis of HPV was analyzed by correlating the data with the expressions of different cell cycle associated molecules such as p53, bcl-2 and PCNA in the biopsy. The data was also correlated with the level of ATRA in the serum of cervical cancer patients.The highlight of the research findings are:i)Carcinogenic high risk HPV types 16 and 18 are more prevalent in Tamil Nadu (Chennai),India. ii)HPV infection establishes its carcinogenicity through altered cell cycle control molecules such as p53, bcl-2 and PCNA iii)Retinoid ATRA level has a major role during carcinogenesis and it was found to be associated with the oncopotency of HPV types. Hence,the research Concludes that Uterine cervical cancer is more prevalent in Chennai, India and it is highly associated with the oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18.