The invention of high intense laser has opened many innovative ways to explore the nature of matter and its interaction with optical radiation. In recent years much attention has been devoted to optical materials with high second order nonlinearities owing to their potential uses in numerous modern research fields such as Non linear optics (NLO),Electro optic modulation (EOM), high speed telecommunications and terahertz (THz) wave generation and detection, etc. The growing demand for new NLO materials is mainly driven by the materials chemistry, in view of the fact that it sturdily facilitate to identify the materials with sufficient thermal and photochemical stabilities, to provide cost effective and easier ways of materials fabrication, to afford possible ways of molecular arrangement with large structural diversity to enabling the electron flow. Moreover, high quality NLO crystals with the ability to grow to the required dimensions in the laboratory are much needed to realize their applications in the abovementioned areas.
The book presents technologically important four organic NLO crystals particularly, HA, 2A-5CB, LAA and LTN.It explains the various methods of crystal growth in detail. A literature survey on various NLO crystals is provided with references. Also explains the various tools and techniques for characterizing the crystals. The optimized growth conditions and physico chemical properties of pure and Acetanilide, Benzamide and Urea doped Hippuric Acid (HA), pure and Benzophenone, Benzoic acid and Paratoluidine doped 2-Amino-5-Chloro Benzophenone (2A-5CB), pure and Cu2+ and Mg2+ doped L-Arginine Acetate (LAA) and pure and Cu2+ and Zn2+ doped L-Tartaric Acid Nicotinamide (LTN) NLO single crystals. The variation of growth parameters and physico chemical properties of these crystals were compared and reported in detail.
The study of growth and characterization of single crystals is receiving increasing attention due to their various applications in solid state technology and laser technology. Single crystals are the fundamental building blocks for modern technology. Growth of crystals by gel method is a promising technique for growing single crystals. In recent years, iodates of alkali, transition, and alkaline earth metals have received great interest for investigations of their crystallographic, optical, and magnetic properties. Studies on growth and characterization of undoped and doped calcium iodate, barium iodate, and cadmium iodate by gel method and lithium iodate by solution method have been described in this book. These crystals are characterized by EDAX, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, and DSC techniques.These techniques are described here in detail. Structural, thermal, magnetic, electrical, microtopographical and nonlinear optical properties are studied and described. Comparative study of all four types of crystals is also carried out.
The present book is aimed towards the development of NLO single crystals of p-Toluidine p-Toluenesulfonate, L-Proline Succinate, L-Arginine semicarbazide and L-lysine sulphate are exhibiting NLO property more than that of KDP, and these grown materials can be used as a better replacement for KDP to find applications in the field of opto-electronics. These crystals belong to the amino acid group, which exhibit the nonlinear optical (NLO) property remarkably. The characterization studies include single XRD analysis, UV analysis, mechanical and dielectric studies of the grown crystals. The dielectric and photoconductivity measurement were also carried out for the grown crystals to probe the nature of the conductivity. Hence, the grown crystals are to be confirmed for the single crystalline nature using XRD technique. From UV spectral analysis the required transmission range for the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and optical band gap have been estimated.The mechanical, dielectric, and photoconductivity studies were carried out to probe the mechanical strength and polarizability nature of the grown crystals.
In the modem world, the development of science & technology in many areas has been achieved through the growth of single crystals. Large sized single crystals are essential for device fabrication and efforts are taken to grow large single crystals in short duration with less cost. Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials are expected to play a major role in photonics including optical information processing, sensor protector applications, data storage ... etc. Some organic compounds exhibit large NLO response, in many cases, orders of magnitude larger than widely known inorganic materials. They also offer the flexibility of molecular design and the promise of virtually an unlimited number of crystalline structures. The present book is aimed towards the development of NLO single crystals of L-Valinium picrate (LVP), L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (LHHM), L-Serine sodium nitrate (LSSN), Bisglycine hydrobromide (BGHB) and Picolinic acid hydrochloride (PHCL) which are all excellent NLO materials are exhibiting NLO property more than that of KDP, and these grown materials can be used as a better replacement for KDP to find applications in the field of opto-electronics.
New materials are the lifeblood of solid state research and device technology. Contrary to what many believe, new materials are not usually discovered by device engineers, solid state theorists, or research managers; they are mostly discovered by crystal chemists who are crystal growers. Some physical phenomena are only exhibited in single crystals and can only be studied and understood in single crystals. Thus the crystal grower - especially if he develops a proficiency in relating structure, bonding and other chemo-physical considerations to properties of interest – is in a key position in determining the direction & success of solid state research and ultimately – technology.There is a need for new lasers with exciting combination of light properties such as wide spectral tuning ranges & large bandwidth for communication systems. While a variety of materials have been studied for their NLO activity, the organic materials have been receiving the maximum attention because of their ultra fast response time, photo-stability and large first order hyper polarizability values.In this view some new organic compounds have been synthesised, grown, characterised, irradiated & discussed
Recent years have witnessed a great upswing in the development of new crystals. Over the past few decades, the advancement in science and technology has made single crystals indispensable for the development of new generation devices. Nearly-perfect crystals of nonlinear optics and ferroelectric materials are needed for optoelectronics, microprocessors, photonics, memories and crystals of all kinds which are required for scientific studies and new applications. Hence, there is always a continuous search for new and efficient materials. In this research we have investigated the growth and physical properties of four crystals viz. two NLO and two ferroelectric crystals. Single crystals of a new NLO material DGT and GZS are grown by slow cooling technique for the first time. GPI, TUGPI and AGPI single crystals grown in the solution growth technique have been discussed. Tri Glycine Barium Nitrate (TGBN) is studied recently in terms of its NLO and ferroelectric properties. The grown crystals were subjected to structural, optical, thermal and mechanical characterization studies. The general conclusions are given along with possible future work that could be performed on these crystals.
Mainly deals with studies made on the growth of barium, strontium and cadmium oxalate single crystals in gel medium and on the characterization of the grown crystals. The entire work is divided into three parts. The first part contains three chapters. Introductory, Existing information and Experimental techniques. The second part of the work is devoted to growth kinetics and characterization of barium, strontium, and cadmium oxalates. It contains 4-9 chapters and the third part contains chapter 10 describes conclusions derived from different experimental measurements carried out during the present investigations.
Among all layered TMDCs those belonging to group V particularly TaS2 and TaSe2 has been most thoroughly investigated in terms of their superconductivity and formation of CDW. These systems are very rich in the sense that each improvement in the resolution or sophistication of the probe has uncovered more subtle behaviour. Recently these materials are getting a lot of attention, since they serve as a model material for understanding the still puzzling data of other highly correlated 2D electronic systems, such as the high-Tc superconductors. They share many physical properties with the HTC cuprates, such as the layered structure and qualitatively similar resistivity and susceptibility.Different materials of TaX2 family have been mostly studied for understanding their electronic structure, superconductivity and CDW. Influence of high temperature and high pressure on the electronic as well as optical properties of these materials is still unknown, which motivated the researcher to carry out the work in this direction.
Nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals are the key materials for the development of laser science and technology because only these kinds of materials have functions to change frequency of laser beam and modulate it in amplitude and phase. It may be said that lasers could not be used so widely in modern science and technology as they have been today, without NLO crystals. Development of NLO crystals with better linear optical (LO) and NLO properties, wider spectral transmission, and phase-matching range in particular is obviously essential for further widening the application field of lasers, particularly in the deep-UV, far IR, and even THz spectral regions. This book presents fundamental aspects of growth and characterization of some NLO materials like Trisglycine Zinc Chloride (TGZC), Glycine Zinc Chloride (GZC), L-Tartaric Acid (LTA) and L-Histidine Nitrate (LHN) showing SHG. The solution grown crystals were studied using XRD, FTIR, UV, Dielectric, Hardness, Thermal, Electrical and photoconductivity to confirm the characteristics essential for the NLO activity of the materials
The work in this book is based on experimental aspects. Here author describes the growth as well as some characterizations of tin monoselenide and tin monosulphide single crystals. The large sized single crystals of SnSe and SnS were successfully grown by direct vapor transport technique without any transporting agent. The stoichiometries of constituent elements in the crystals were confirmed from the EDAX analysis. The results from the X-ray diffraction analysis indicate orthorhombic crystal structure of the crystals. The microscopic examinations of the surfaces of the crystals have revealed layered growth mechanism for their growth. The positive value of the hall coefficient and Seeback coefficient indicate that both the types of crystals are of p- type and majority charge carriers in them are holes. The optical absorption study has clearly shown that SnX (X=S, Se) compounds have direct as well as indirect band gaps. The electrical resistance of tin monoselenide and tin monosulfied was found to be pressure dependent. No transition in the resistance was observed for these crystals up to 6 GPa.
This work attempts to investigate some unknown properties of ZnO micro- and nanostructures as one of the most promising materials in this decade. Additionally, the interaction between the components consisting of ZnO, buffer layers and substrates can produce new physical properties which may provide some important utilization in electronic and optoelectronic devices. The aim of this work is to study the effect of various substrates with metal or metal oxide layers including Au, Ag, Cu and Au+Cu alloy on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO micro- and nanostructures. In addition, the relevant growth mechanisms are also proposed.
The new environmental criteria and the necessity to enhance the agricultural output for feeding the world population and fulfilling its other requirements have made it necessary to invent new technologies. In recent years, the interest in soil microorganisms has increased because some of these microorganisms can promote the growth of plant or to avoid the attack of soil borne plant pathogens. These beneficial bacteria are usually referred to as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria or PGPR or by one group of workers in China as yield increasing bacteria or YIB. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the most diverse and versatile group of indigenous microflora of almost all the horticulture and forestry crops. They are potential sources of diverse and useful metabolites that are important agriculturally, industrially and biotechnologically. Their potential to synthesize different secondary metabolite with different biological activities is the important function of soil fertility and sustainability of crops. They affect the soil properties, chemical composition of plants an
The title of study is Synthesis and characterization of Total Base Number (TBN) for engine oil. The objectives of my book to synthesize and characterize the Total Base Number (TBN) compounds for engine oil. Calcium oleate detergent was prepared by setting eight batches and calcium sulfonate was prepared by setting six batches. These compounds were prepared by applying same method but different quantities of calcium hydroxide were used in all batches. The products were characterized by three parameters such as Basicity test, solubility in engine oil and base oil,determine the Total Base Number value (TBN). The product of these batches was completely soluble in engine oil and base oil and also the product of these batches had almost same experimental and theoretical Total Base Number (TBN) values. The product of all batches of calcium oleate detergent and calcium sulfonate will show better/highest activity due to Total Base Number values (TBN) which matches with the Total Base Number values (TBN) as mentioned in the literature. Hence, therefore all batches product of calcium oleate detergent and batch product of calcium sulfonate were used as an additive for engine oil.
Nonlinear optics has been a rapidly growing scientific field in the recent decades. It is the study of the interactions of light with matter under the condition in which the nonlinear response of the atoms plays an important role. This book clearly explains the basic requirements needed for the nonlinear optical materials. The general level of presentation has been kept elementary with emphasis on the physical reasoning underlying the interpretation of the nonlinear optical materials suitable for device fabrications. Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials find useful applications in the fields of photonics and optoelectronics. This book presents fundamental aspects of growth and characterization of some NLO materials Trisglycine Zinc Chloride (TGZC), Triglycine Acetate (TGAc), Glycine Lithium Sulphate (GLS), L-Prolinium Tartrate (LPT) and Dichloridodiglycine Zinc Dihydrate having more SHG efficiency. The grown materials using solution growth technique are subjected to XRD, FTIR, UV, Dielectric, Hardness, Thermal, Electrical and Photoconductivity studies to confirm the characteristics required for the NLO activity of the materials.