The study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity in crop plants for optimization of sampling and breeding strategies. Genetically diverse gene pool is vitally important in varietal development. Molecular markers were utilized to explore the genetic diversity among native and exotic germplasm. In the proposed study Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity among 20 selected linseed varieties/lines.
Linseed is one of the most important oil seed crops that its demand in the world market is increasing owing to its economic and nutritional values, especially its medicinal values to treat cancer. To meet this demand, the production of the linseed has to be increased in quality and quantity. Since the crop grows mostly in highland areas where rainfall and other factors induce soil acidity, its production is highly affected by it. Though adding lime corrects the soil acidity problem, it is expensive, environmentally unfriendly and in some situations subsoil acidity restricts its benefit. So, crop varieties with better tolerance to acidity have immediate application. Accordingly, sixty-four different linseed genotypes were evaluated by simple lattice design to identify high yielding and adaptable genotypes of linseed on acidic soil (PH = 5.1). Statistical analysis showed marked variations among genotypes for seed and oil yield, indicating acidity tolerance variations among the genotypes. Hence, the author strong believes that crop breeders and farmers engaged in breeding activity would benefit most from the techniques used to screen out the genotypes productive on the acidic soil.
linseed accessions collected from Ethiopia were highly variable for several trait indicating the possibilities for genetic improvement of the crop. The varying characters of the superior accessions have implications for further work. The variation for the different characters found in Ethiopian linseed landraces and exotic cultivars included in this study could be exploited and used in future linseed improvement programs.
This book is an attempt to make a comprehensive systematic study of some Cucurbits in Khartoum State.It is studies the morphology,histology and genetic diversity of some Cucurbits in the study area. It is compares morphological, histological and molecular methods as tools of identification of Cucurbits. This provides a comparison between traditional Taxonomy which is based on morphology and modern Taxonomy which is based on DNA characterization.To compare the utility of the DNA marker system for evaluating similarity.
This is a reference book which describes importance, use and basic information relevant to Wheat and its improvement. In reference to genetic diversity analysis, data was collected for yield and its components and utilized for genetic evaluation of diverse wheat genotypes. The analysis revealed high significant genetic variation for most of the yield components. Recent research findings in wheat improvement aspects have been incorporated in the book. The present research would be fruitful during formulating breeding strategies for wheat improvement. Methodology, experimental findings and their relation with earlier researches has been elaborated in the book. Thousand grain weight, plot yield, grains per spike, tiller per meter and ear length are found key traits for genetic evaluation of wheat genotypes and should be utilized in wheat breeding programmes. Genetic diversity analysis using Cluster and principal component analysis has explored an opportunity to identify diversified genotypes for crop improvement.Present book is basically written for Plant Breeding Scholar and persons interested in Wheat research.
This book is about “Genetic Diversity and Genetic Origin of Weedy Rice growing in rice fields In Districts of Kurunegala and Matara in Sri Lanka”. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea), one of the most troublesome rice weeds, first reported in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka in early 1990s and at present spreading into many rice growing areas. Weedy rice (WR) variable in height, panicle form, grain size, awn length, flag leaf, and growth duration and is a serious problem because of high competitiveness with cultivated rice, variable dormancy and shattering nature of grains. The study were to determine the genetic diversity and differentiation of WR populations from Matara and Kurunegala Districts in Sri Lanka and to explore the possible origin of these WR populations by comparing their genetic relationships with rice varieties (O. sativa) and wild rice (O. nivara and O. rufipogon).
This study is based on the idea :Development of Desi Sarson from Brassica Campestris:. The indegenious germplams of Brassica Campestris was improved through modern molecular and conventional breeding techniques. In conventional breeding the Brassica campestris cultivars were crossed with Brassica napus varieties and the offsprings were then evaulated for genetic diversity through molecular (RAPD and SSR) markers.
Ethiopia considered as the secondary center of genetic diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The high genetic diversity observed in Ethiopian barley landraces was due to its diverse environmental and soil condition. Barley landraces from Ethiopia used as a source of genes for resistant to disease and agronomic traits all over the world. International research center such as ICARDA also used Ethiopian germplasms in their breeding program to developed different cultivars well adapted to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In any breeding program, the study of the existing genetic diversity within their base population is a key factor for their success. Therefore, understanding the genetic architecture of the base population related to diversity and understanding the interrelationship of yield components will be crucial. It helps to design appropriate crossing program by selecting parents with divergent genetic background that meet the breeding objective. It is also important to develop core collection. So it is valuable reference for the researchers, conservation specialists, development workers, graduate and undergraduate students.
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, an important underutilized crop of great potential, is grown as a traditional crop in China, India, Japan, Korea, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In India, it is grown as minor oilseed crop in Himalayan highlands. Genetic diversity of perilla landraces was characterized using morphological and molecular methods and the quality traits were also estimated. The studies show good amount of genetic diversity among the Indian landraces. Although the main area of diversity of Perilla frutescens is assumed to be China, yet other areas where Perilla frutescens is widely distributed are equally important for the conservation of its genetic resources. There is a need to assess various "adding value" initiatives to perilla crop diversity in order to link it with economic development of the farmers in traditional production systems. The results of the present study justifiably highlight usefulness of perilla landraces in breeding program for characters of agronomic and economic importance.
Identification and description of the genetic variability available in germplasm collections are the basis of improved plans designed to control genetic erosion; more so, a preliminary requirement for the exploration of useful traits in Plant Breeding. Okra is characterized by diversity based on form and colour of fruits and stems, Okra has strong commercial value for poor women farmers and has vital importance as food diet among the inhabitants of the cities and villages. Notwithstanding, there is not yet any previous reported attempt by breeders at improving the vegetable in terms of developing core collections for higher yield and quality. Accessions in Ghana are still landraces with their associated challenges including poor yield, long maturity period, non-standard in shape, colour and size and pests and diseases. This work seeks to assess qualitative and quantitative variations among collections of the Ghanaian okra landraces through morphological evaluations and thus exploit such variations in breeding programmes to develop improved, high-yielding varieties.
Genetic diversity plays a very important role in survival and adaptability of a species because when a species’s environment changes, slight gene variations are necessary to produce changes in the organism's anatomy that enables it to adapt and survive. This book, therefore, provides an idea on molecular markers such as RAPD, ISSR and SSR technologies to detect genetic diversity of the selected medicinal plants. The advantages of molecular markers for the generation of genetic linkage maps and molecular analysis in plants have been established extensively within a short span of their inception as an efficient marker system. Their widespread use has served as a considerable genomic resource for plant breeder's providing them with an array of suitable tools for a range of target applications such as analysis of genetic diversity. Knowledge of population genetic diversity is one of the prerequisites for development of plant species conservation strategies. In the case of wild species that represent genetic resources for cultivated plants, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential as they are the source of genetic material that are used to improve elite varieties.
Genetic diversity is our heritage, efficient germplasm collection and its evaluation is the key factor to address the problem and to identify the wealth of the important germplasm growing in our close vicinity. In the present study a total of 40 genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris (L) were collected from plane and mountainous areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, and investigated for morphological and biochemical genetic diversity. An appreciable variation was observed for seed colour and 100 seed weight. SDS-PAGE was carried out and 37% genetic disagreement was observed in the collected lines with percent disagreement ranging from 0.00 – 0.71. To fractionate and explain the level of genetic diversity, the electropherogram was further divided into three zones and showing 37%, 36 % and 39% genetic disagreement respectively and subsequently analyzed through cluster analysis (how to use computer software for cluster analysis “see tutorial for cluster analysis” narrated in this book). Cluster analysis exhibited moderate level of genetic diversity; to explore the gene pool of Pakistani common bean more collection is required for genetic improvement.
Tarter buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn, Polygonaceae) is a crop of dietary benefits beause of their active component rutin along with other nutritional components. In ancient time it was underutilized crop but at the present time tarter buckwheat must be further evaluated for its contribution to diversifying cropping systems, enhancing human nutrition, and contributing to National economies. Detection and analysis of genetic variation can help us to understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in plants. Since the entire plant kingdom cannot be covered under sequencing projects, molecular markers and their correlation to phenotypes provide us with requisite landmarks for elucidation of genetic variation. Genetic or DNA based marker techniques such as RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), SSR (simple sequence repeats) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) are routinely being used in ecological, evolutionary, taxonomical, phylogenic and genetic studies of plant sciences.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is one the best known among various taxa of economic, medicinal (anti-cancerous, healing, blood purifier properties), ornamental and cultural importance of the genus Curcuma. India and Thailand with at least 40 species in each area have the highest diversity. Genetic variability in a population can be partitioned into heritable and non-heritable variation with the aid of genetic parameters such as variance, genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance, which serve as a basis for selection of some outstanding genotypes from existing ones. Cluster analysis have proved to be effective methods in grouping turmeric accessions that may facilitate effective utilization of the accession in crop improvement programmes through selection, as conventional breeding is difficult in this crop. Moreover, correlation and path analysis of morphological traits indicated importance of desirable traits for strengthening the turmeric breeding programme for higher rhizome yield.
The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress.