Flood is an abnormal progressive rise in the water level of a stream that may result in the over flowing by the water of the normal confines of the stream with the subsequent inundation of areas which are not normally submerged.This book highlighted the flood risk reduction management by integrated approach of transboundary river basin planning of India and Bangladesh. Ichamati River is such a river that flows through India and Bangladesh and also forms the boundary between the two countries. The river is facing the problem of siltation leading to thin flow of water in the dry season and floods in the rainy season. Experts are handling the situation and remedial matters are being discussed between the governments of India and Bangladesh. Govt. of India has also raised different issues regarding this river with Bangladesh Government through the Joint River Commission (JRC). The alternate proposal given above will not involve Bangladesh; hence Govt. of West Bengal can immediately take up the project without waiting for an understanding with Bangladesh.
Flood is the one of the most important natural hazard in India that occurs frequently due to some natural and anthropogenic factors. The delta region of Mahanadi river basin located in eastern part of India which is densely populated and major paddy growing region in the state of Orissa. Floods are frequent phenomena occurring in this part of the state during south-west monsoon, which causes severe damage of lives, property as well as agriculture. Remote sensing and GIS is an important tool for the flood mapping and its damage assessment. It provides timely assistance and save lives and property. The main objective of the present book is to give flood damage assessment and vulnerability analysis in part of Mahanadi Delta Basin, India. Using SAR data flood hazard map and flood depth the vulnerability of each element at risk is calculated. Finally the total risk has been identified. So, Remote sensing and GIS can be used for the risk communication among the people in our society for different strategic management and planning. This book meets the requirements of Under Graduate and Post Graduate courses in geography, earth science, environmental management and Disaster management.
In recent years there have been a number of significant riverine floods all around the world which caused enormous damage both in terms of loss of life and economics. River Krishna is one of the flood prone rivers of the world. Low lying villages in the Sangli District of Maharashtra State on the banks of the river Krishna gets inundated in times of floods. The river Krishna affects 32 villages every year. In the Sangli district 15 floods occurred in last the 30 years. So, there is need to study the floods of the Sangli district from the geographical point of view. Because, geographer plays an important role in solving the flood problems and its flood management. The study of flood problem is most useful to the district council. By studying actual causes of the flood and knowing the most affected areas, district council can eradicate the problem of flood hazard. This book has addressed the floods of the year 2005 and 2006 faced by Sangli district especially experienced by the Miraj, Palus, Walwa and Shirala tehsils. The main objective of the book is to find out causes and impact of floods and to suggest comprehensive plan for the flood disaster management in the Indian context.
Damodar River of India is popularized as ‘Sorrow of Bengal’ due to massive unpredictable destruction in the monsoonal floods, recorded since 1665.Taking three prime objectives of development: (1) flood control, (2) extensive irrigation and (3) power generation, Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) was established in 1948 as India’s first multipurpose river valley project on the Damodar River Basin. Four large dams, Durgapur barrage and Tenughat reservoir are built to tamp the flood prone Damodar River using the water resource in an integrated method. Carrying sixty years of legacy, the existing drainage and flood control system of DVC has aggravated a number of hydrogeomorphic problems especially in the lower segment of Damodar, viz., siltation of river bed and reservoirs, uncontrolled monsoonal stream flow, declining carrying capacity of lower course, drainage congestion, low-high magnitude annual floods, decay of palaeochannels etc. Highlighting the existing problems, this research work mainly tries to analyze the pre-dam and post-dam flood hydrology and risk assessment of Damodar River Basin which can be applied in the flood management strategies of West Bengal.
Flooding is one of the most common natural disasters worldwide and has the largest economic impact on society. The developing world is particularly vulnerable, as the people there are disproportionately affected by flooding. In Vietnam, flooding occurs annually, and the Thach Han Basin is among the areas vulnerable to flooding. The book describes the process to assess flood risk in the basin. The MIKE model family, including a hydrological model (NAM), hydraulic dynamic model (MIKE 11) and MIKE 11 GIS, was the primary tool applied to create flood risk maps. Risk is herein understood as a function of the hazard and the vulnerability of society to damage due to the hazard. The hazard maps were constructed from the duration maps and the inundation maps. Through field survey and data analysis, land use and population density were chosen as the basis to develop the flood vulnerability maps. Flood risk maps were constructed by integrating the hazard and vulnerability maps.
This book presents before the readers the deterioration in the water quality parameters of River Yamuna flowing in the Gangetic plain of the mainland India. Actually the Gangetic plain is made by the flowing rivers in the area as Yamuna and Ganga brought the plain and made the soil of plain fertile & Brahmaputra from the side of Assam i.e. eastern Himalayas supports the Gangetic River System of the plain before making the largest delta of the world i.e. the Bengal Delta. Not only the water quality of Yamuna River is deteriorated, after Allahabad(Prayag) the main River Ganga also gets deteriorated in its water quality and this disturbs the fertility of the Gangetic plain.
In July 2010, 20.36 million people were left homeless and abandoned in the nation of Pakistan. The historic city of Thatta in the Sindh province of Pakistan saw catastrophic destruction of homes and villages. The population of Thatta took shelter by escaping to Makli Hill, a necropolis with mausoleums dating as far back as 1352 A.D. This book aims to discuss a theoretical early recovery framework that can be used as a guideline to prevent future natural disasters, such as flooding in this case. It will take into account the main impact of flooding on housing and agricultural crops with statistics showing that 34% of affected families having lost their homes, and 33% of houses partially damaged. The assessment revealed almost 797, 000 houses had been damaged, 328, 555 of which have been destroyed. Additionally, this book provides a proposal to implement a shelter program for the flood victims of Thatta district. This will aid in the reduction of risk and vulnerability of the flood prone areas that surround Thatta and Indus River Delta.
Flooding is a natural and recurring event for a river or stream. The River Godavari is a major drainage system and largest river of the Peninsular India. It originates in the Western Ghats at Bramhagiri near Trimbakeshwar in the Nashik District of Maharashtra at an elevation of 1294 m above sea level. With a total length of 1465 km of which 694 km is in Maharashtra State. The main aim of this study is to find out the areas which are prone to flood risk every year and mark the flood lines in urban flood area. Urbanization is the major cause for the rivers to get flooded and spread the water in to residential areas. Residential areas goes on increasing every year in the flood plain zones and this type of encroachment leads to decrease in channel width and increase in flood prone zones. Floods of 2006 and 2008 were taken for the present studies which have created a great Data have been collected in field and from the different government offices. At the outcome it can be said that the large floods are important geomorphic agents that temporarily affect the forms and behavioral characteristics of some rivers, but leave a lasting effect in urban areas.
Focusing on South Africa, it becomes evident that traditional physical science approaches to flood risk management is not adequate for a comprehensive understanding of the flood risk of peri-urban communities. A more integrated approach that draws methods from both the physical and social sciences becomes necessary to better understand the physical flood hazard(scape) and the vulnerability of the at-risk population. Such an understanding is anticipated to lead to a more comprehensive strategy for urban flood risk management in the developing country context. This book is an attempt to demonstrate, by way of actual events, how such an integrated approach can be achieved and the merits thereof. The research is based on field experience of the 2006 and 2007 extreme weather events in the town of George in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.
Today, the Nile Basin faces the challenges of poverty (4 of its riparian countries are among the 10 poorest in the world), instability (conflicts in the Great Lakes, Sudan, and the Horn of Africa), rapid population growth, and severe environmental degradation (especially in the East African highlands). But joint regional development of the Nile offers significant opportunities for cooperative management and development that will catalyze greater regional integration for socioeconomic development, making it possible to meet these challenges. These socioeconomic benefits will exceed the direct benefits from the river alone. Transboundary water resources are increasing in importance as sources of freshwater worldwide. So that to analyse transboundary water resources the Nile River is the best case study. In this work I have analyse the water sharing of the Nile, emerging conflicts and cooperation among its riparian countries and I have also tried to point out what can be done to manage proper and sharing of the Nile river.
Bangladesh has been experienced flooding every year on up to two- third of its territory. The location of Bangladesh in the delta coupled with the strong monsoon rain make it extremely vulnerable to recurring floods. Manikganj is one of the most flood vulnerable districts of the country. Every flood that strikes in Bangladesh affects Manikganj district. All the ten Unions and one Pourashova are more or less vulnerable to flood in the Manikganj Sadar Upazila. Heavy rainfall during monsoon, over spilling of the Jamuna and Kaliganga River and other local rivers, lack of proper drainage facilities, lack of flood and riverbank protection embankment are the main causes of flood in Manikganj district. Due to flood, every year people loss their houses, lands, livestock and other valuable resouinstitutional support and its performance analysis and recommendation suggestions mitigate the flood impact with the institutional support. To attain the objectives, the study encompasses the socio- economic impact scenario of the flood and the flood disaster management by the institutions in the Manikganj Sadar Upazila.
Shariatpur District, in Bangladesh is surrounded by the two big rivers, Padma at north and the Meghna at eastern side. When the two rivers attain peak flood levels simultaneously, this district faces devastating floods. These floods have a destructive effect on agriculture especially on Aman variety up to certain level of flood depth but also have a positive impact on following year’s Boro production. So there is a scope of managing flood flows towards crop production risk management. The present study provides a method for flood management to help with crop production risk management. HEC-RAS, statistical analysis and GIS model were carried out for finding inundation maps, optimum flood depth and volume of water respectively. The study findings show that, the optimal flood depth is 1.85m (msl) in where Boro production would be safe and Aman production would face about 200 ton/yr loss. This study also find two equations that provide estimation of Mawa discharge depending on two upstream stations (Hardings Bridge and Bahadurabad Ghat) and targeted discharge of Mawa that needs to release from Mawa to the study area towards ensuring the optimum flood depth.
The aim of this study is clarified water governance, namely the respective roles of government, civil society and the private sector which directly or indirectly impact the development and management of water resources. Water resources-related conflict has been highlighted. Initially, this research study provided recommendations to resolve and minimise water-related conflict. A case study of the Ganges River Basin is then presented, and in particular, the transboundary water sharing issues between Bangladesh and India. It includes the impact of the Farakka Barrage in the Ganges River Basin area which has led to conflict between the Ganges states since 1951. A Stackelberg leader-follower model was proposed to develop win-win strategies for mitigation of the transboundary water sharing conflict between Bangladesh and India. This can be implemented in any river basin, particularly ones involving upstream – downstream co-riparian states. Secondly, a scenario of relevant climatic drivers was generated by a statistical downscaling technique to develop water resources management strategies for the Murray Darling Basin (MDB).
Flood and risks associated with flood, are extremely alarming for every human being due to loss of life and belongings which is a nightmare well known to all. Disruption in the economy and society due to flood damage can inflict heavy loss and proper management is required to combat further damage. Microwave data has been used in the present work to compute flood vulnerability, damage and risk and clear distinction about all these terms have been thoroughly discussed in the book to elucidate and propose proper management strategies. Assessment of flood extent, depth and duration has been done from Radar images by remote sensing techniques to further compute the flood risk. The main purpose of the study is to identify the vulnerable objects in the path of flood damage and to quantify the loss and determining the value of assets.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of awareness and use of risk management techniques by SMEs in the construction industry conducting business activities in King William’s Town and Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data from 82 SME owners or managers in the construction industry. The statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse data. The Chi-square, cross tabulation and descriptive statistical tests were employed to analyse the data. The results of the study revealed that there is a low level of awareness and use of risk management techniques by SMEs in the construction industry. In addition, the results revealed that SMEs in the construction industry have a positive attitude toward risk management techniques. The results of the study recommend that the government, tertiary institutions, construction industry development board and SME owners or managers in the construction industry should work together to improve the level of awareness and use of risk management techniques.