Recommendation: On the basis of two years of experimental findings, it may be recommended that. 1. Variety NDR-359 should be preferred over HUBR 2-1 for achieving higher yield, with sequential application of Zn-EDTA @ 1.00 kg ha-1 through soil followed by Fe-EDTA @ 0.5 kg ha-1 through foliar spray. 2. However, HUBR 2-1 can be recommended with the application of Zn-EDTA @ 1.00 kg ha-1 through soil and Fe-EDTA @ 0.5 kg ha-1 through foliar spray separately for achieving higher zinc and iron content in grain. 3. Application of 75% RFD (90, 45, 45 kg ha-1 N, P2O5 and K2O) through inorganics and 25% N through FYM can be made for obtaining higher grain yield and better quality in terms of higher zinc and iron content in grains.
Residual effects of Zinc (Zn) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) help in economizing the fertilizer use without any adverse effect on soil fertility and crop yields. No information is available for residual effect of Zn fertilizer applied in conjunction with FYM to rice-wheat rotation practiced in the northern plains, hot sub-humid (dry) ecoregion of India. The present investigation was carried out to determine the residual effect of Zn fertilizer application with or without farmyard manure on yields, cationic micro-nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) concentration and uptake of third crop rice and fourth crop wheat under rotation. The residual of conjoint use of 2.5 or 3.75 Kg Zn/ha + 5 t FYM/ha was found most beneficial for increasing both yields and nutrient uptake of both rice and wheat crops.
Micronutrients are key elements in plant growth and development. Deficiencies of Ca, Zn, Fe and B have been increasing in some fruit crops. Some reasons are higher crop yields which increase plant nutrient demands, use of high analyses NPK fertilizers containing lower quantities of micro-nutrient contaminants and decreased use of farmyard manure on many agricultural soils. The combined foliar application of Ca, Zn, Fe and B as a source of calcium nitrate 1000mg/l + borax 30mg/l + zinc sulphate 200 mg/l + ferrous sulphate 200 mg/l was favorable to influenced the plant growth characters, physiological attributes, yield as well as quality of papaya. Moreover, the application of borax individually at 30mg/l was showed the earliness in flowering when apply at 60, 90 and 120 days after planting of papaya cv. Taiwan Red Lady.
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is considered as a novel and improved practice to raise rice production constrained by several factors. The book presents a comprehensive review on SRI. The performance of cultivars in relation to methods of planting (SRI and conventional transplanting) and the effect of FYM when used alone or in integrated manner on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice is presented.
A field experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine research field from October 2011 to March 2012 under irrigation to assess the response of onion to farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates. The study consists of four levels of FYM (0, 15, 30 and 45 ton FYM ha-1) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1). The experiment was conducted in 4 ? 4 factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on growth, yield, and quality parameters were recorded and analyzed using SAS Computer Software version 9.2. Results revealed that interaction of FYM and N fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) influenced Plant height, number of leaves, leaf lengh, maturity, average bulb weight, total yield, marketable yield, harvest index, bulb dry matter, TSS and split bulbs. However, leaf diameter, bulb length, bulb diameter and unmarketable yield were not affected by the combined application of FYM and N fertilizer. The findings highlighted that the performance of onion at Jimma area can be enhanced through application of FYM and N fertilizers.
Vermiculture has emerged as an efficient and novel option in bio dynamic farming. Vermicomposting is a simple biotechnological process of composting in which earthworms are used to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product. Agricultural residue composting is a complex process mediated by microorganisms through lignocellulolytic enzyme system. Further nutritive value of compost can be augmented through the use of earthworm, nutrient supplementation and microbial inoculation. Enriched vermicomposts obtained by macro and micro nutrient supplementation, lignocellulolytic micro organisms inoculation, nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacterial inoculation had highest N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn nutrients and lowest C : N ratio, indicating high degree of enrichment and superiority over simple compost i.e. FYM. During vermicomposting, vermicompost also had higher cellulase activity and bacterial population. Enriched vermicomposts were found superior in enhancing vegetative growth, yield and yield attributing characteristics and quality characteristics of fruits of pomegranate.
The productivity of crops in wetland is constrained by the reduced availability of Sulphur (S) and micronutrients like Boron (B), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) in acid soil. A greenhouse study was conducted using acid soil (Inceptisol, Silty loam) to evaluate the effects of liming, soil moisture regime and application of Sulfur, Boron, Copper and Zinc on the availability of applied nutrients, growth and yield of rice. The effects of application of lime (2.0 t/ha) over no lime; alternate flooding and drying (AFD) over continuous flooding (CF) and moisture regime maintained at field capacity (FC); and nutrients viz., S, B, Cu and Zn on growth and yield of rice were assessed. Rice cv. IR 36 was grown with NPK applied @ 60 mg N, 30 mg P2O5 and 30 mg K2O /kg soil. S, B, Cu, and Zn were applied @ 10, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg/kg of soil, respectively. Application of 22.4 kg S, 1.12 kg B, 3.36 kg Cu, and 11.2 kg Zn/ha significantly enhanced the growth and yield of rice over control in alluvial soil. Yield response of rice to the application of S, B, Cu and Zn was further improved by liming and alternate flooding and drying during the growing season.
The Study was done to assess effect of continuous application of plant nutrients through organic and inorganic sources and its combination on crop yield, growth, uptake of both macro and micro nutrients and economics of maize. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments comprising chemical fertilizers, organic manure, Azotobacter bio-fertilizer and their combinations. The results revealed that the growth of maize crop in terms of plant height at 45 DAS and at harvest, LAI and SPAD chlorophyll meter values at 30 and 45 DAS were maximum by applying 100 % NPK + FYM 10 t/ha. The crop attained highest CGR (20.09 and 23.23 g m-2 day-1, respectively) between 30-45 and 45-60 DAS and RGR at 45-60 DAS when fertilized with 100 % NPK + FYM 10 t/ha. Highest maize grain, stover and biological yield (4075, 6055 and 10155 kg ha-1) were obtained by applying 100 % NPK + FYM 10 t/ha. Soil enrichment with 100 % NPK + FYM 10 t ha-1 resulted in highest monetary returns of Rs. 31253/ha. The maximum B.C. ratio (1.91) was accounted by 100 % NPK + Azotobacter with statistical equivalence with 150 % NPK, 100 % NPK alone or in combination with Zn, Zn + S and FYM 10 t/ha.
Zinc is an essential nutrient element for plants, animals and Humans. It is involved in several biochemical reactions in plant and its deficiency causes low crop yields. Zinc deficiency is common in many soil types, in general, and its correction is costly because of the wide area of cultivated lands suffering of Zn deficiency. Different plant species as well as plant genotypes differ in their response to low Zn growth substrates. The efficiency of plant genotypes to be grown in low Zn or Zn-deficient growth medium is of a great economic importance. This will help for saving high doses of Zn fertilizers, which of economic benefits and also can prevent soil pollution by heavy load of Zn application. Therefore, the selection of high efficient plant genotypes for cultivation in low-Zn soil will be the future strategy for cultivating plant crops in low-fertile soil. This book represents a study to evaluate the effect of Zn sources and concentrations on the growth, morphological characters and chemical composition of three been cultivars grown on sand culture, and also to estimate the best applications of the two zinc sources.
An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from June to November 2013 to study the effect of frequency of weeding and integrated nutrient management on the growth and yield of transplant Aman rice (cv. BRRI dhan49). The experiment consisted of five weeding regimes viz. control (no weeding), one weeding at 15 DAT, two weedings at 15 and 30 DAT, three weedings at 15, 30 and 45 DAT and application of herbicide (Manage 10 WP) and five nutrient management viz. BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers, cowdung at 10 t ha-1, poultry manure at 5 t ha-1, 50% BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers + cowdung at 5 t ha-1 and 50% BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. We found that the morpho-physiological characteristics, yield contributing characters and yield of transplant Aman rice were significantly influenced by weeding regime and integrated nutrient management.
In an attempt to study the relationship between seed zinc content and seedling vigour, hundred rabi sorghum genotypes were raised during rabi 2009-10.The genotypes at 30 DAS were categorized as low,medium and high vigour types based on drymatter accumulation.In high vigour genotypes the total dry matter ranged from 10.21-12.35g and in medium it ranged from 9.07-10.19g and in low vigour ranged from 6.25-8.84g plant-1. High vigor genotypes had higher zinc content 3.13-4.49 and low vigour types 1.96-2.66 mg100g-1. Thus there was correlation between seedling vigour and seed zinc content. To enhance the seed zinc content in selected genotypes in the field, zinc sulphate @ 10 kg/ha in combination with organics (1t/ha) at the time of sowing increased seed yield by 23% and seed zinc content by 23.6%.Root and shoot growth of sorghum increased considerably due to addition zinc at early stage.Low zinc types responded higher than high vigour types.Thus, zinc has differential response in sorghum genotypes based on vigour and growth.Therefore it is concluded that high vigour types are better for higher response to zinc, seed zinc content and yield too.
This study was conducted to determine the optimum inorganic and organic nutrient sources and rates for sugarcane production. A set of experiments were designed and conducted at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan, located at 25o25’60’N 68o31’ 60E during 2008-09 and 2009-10. In all the experiments, Thatta-10 sugarcane variety was sown. In the light of findings it is concluded that integrated nutrient management recorded 25% saving in inorganic NPK fertilizers due to application of FYM and or press mud applied at 20 t ha-1. The residual effect of FYM and press mud showed significant effect on subsequent ratoon crop. The residual FYM and or press mud at 20 t ha-1 + supplemental application of 25% less inorganic NPK fertilizer was found sufficient nutrient level. This study recommends that organic and inorganic nutrients should be applied to enhance growth, yield, quality and nutrient uptake of both plant and ratoon sugarcane. Residual effects were seen on the subsequent ratoon crop due to FYM and press mud applications. Therefore, application of FYM and or press mud at 20 t ha-1 once in a two year with 25% less NPK fertilizer is recommended.
Assessed “Effect of different level of silicon on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of upland paddy in an Inceptisol’’. The experiment was laid out in randomized bock design with five replications and four treatments. The application of silicon to upland paddy @ 240 kg silicon ha-1 i.e. (500 kg ha-1 calcium silicate) was found to be optimum for increasing the growth, yield attributing character, uptake of silicon, macro (N, P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) and minimizing the incidence of stem borer and grass hopper.
Sewage sludge (SS) was collected with a view to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge on growth and yield contributing characters of rice (Oryza sativa L cv. BRRI dhan-33) and also to asses the properties of sewage sludge content compared to soil. There were five treatments viz. control (T1 = 100% soil), T2 (100% SS), T3 (50% soil + 50% SS), T4 (75% soil +25% SS), and T5 (25% soil + 75% SS). The pots were arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replication having 5 treatments. The results suggest that farmers of Bangladesh can grow rice plants on sewage sludge or with combination with soil. But, the further findings should be involved in the percentage of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, B, etc.) in sewage sludge. The overall findings of this study indicate that the use of sewage sludge might be encouraged in order to improving the fertility status of soil augmenting crop yield, simultaneously.
A crop nutrient survey was conducted in 54 mandals covering 150 rice fields in Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh for developing the DRIS foliar diagnostic norms for N, P, K, S, Zn and Fe and to identify the yield limiting nutrients in rice. The DRIS derived sufficiency ranges for N, P, K and S from nutrient survey of rice crop in the district were 2.2 to 3.6, 0.30 to 0.38, 2.02 to 2.89 and 0.18 to 0.34 per cents respectively. The limits for Zn and Fe were 14.9 to 26.3 and 19.7 to 167.8 mg kg-1 respectively.The number of nutrients diagnosed as yield limiting by DRIS are more than those identified by the CNC method.