Denture bases are commonly made from acrylic resins, which were introduced by Dr. Walter Wright back in 1937. Among these, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used. PMMA material is mostly processed by wet heat and compression molding techniques, which deliver dentures with acceptable mechanical properties. However, certain dimensional changes are known to occur in acrylic resin during or after its processing. These changes hold clinical significance because for better adaptation to oral tissues, denture base material must have dimensional accuracy during and after its processing. However, inaccuracies tend to occur due to unavoidable changes during fabrication such as thermal expansion on heating, contraction on cooling and polymerization shrinkage. The purported significance of this study is to find out the most suitable cooling procedure for achieving maximum dimensional accuracy following a standard heating cycle. This will lead to the fabrication of a denture which will have better retention, support, stability.
From almost the time dentistry achieved a professional status, there has been a constant search to obtain a denture base material of life like appearance, one that would not deteriorate in service. The introduction and use of acrylic resin as a denture base material since 1937 has revolutionized the dentistry in a big way. Since then no other material has been found that matches the appearance of the oral soft tissues with as great fidelity as acrylic resin. Heat cured acrylic resins are the most commonly used materials for denture base processing. It has fine esthetic properties, excellent color stability and can be used with a simple technique for the construction of dentures. Inspite of having all these advantages, dimensional inaccuracies have been a critical component in assessing in vivo performances of these materials. These changes have profound effect on Complete Denture Occlusion. Even minor changes can lead to severe discrepancies. Dimensional inaccuracies is still a major challenge for the Prosthodontist which need to be corrected for better results. The aim of this study is to search for such a Denture Base material which shows minimal inaccuracies.
I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to all the people involved in the writing of this book, especially " " who were very generous in sharing their time and knowledge with me. I take immense pleasure in thanking and appreciations also go to my colleague in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities. Thanks to " " my publisher who encouraged me. Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents for their blessings, my friends for their help and wishes for the successful completion of this project. Last and not least: I beg forgiveness of all those who have been with me over the course of the years and whose names I have failed to mention."
Face recognition has been an active research area over the last 30 years. The face is our primary focus of attention in social intercourse, playing a major role in conveying identity and emotion. Although the ability to infer intelligence or character from facial appearance is suspect, the human ability to recognize faces is remarkable. We can recognize thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and identify familiar faces at a glance even after years of separation. This skill is quite robust, despite large changes in the visual stimulus due to viewing conditions, expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hair style. In this book, Laplacian faces which uses linear projective projection is studied and finally enhanced before accuracy. LPP is designed for preserving local structure; it is likely that a nearest neighbour search in the low dimensional space will yield similar results to that in the high dimensional space. LPP’s are linear projective maps that arise by solving a variational problem that optimally preserves the neighborhood structure of the data set. Finally the algorithm is modified to yield better results in terms of time and accuracy.
Clinical success of fixed prosthodontic procedures is dependent in part upon the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials and impression procedures. The variable thickness of the impression material in tray may result in dimensional change & inaccuracies in the cast. There is distortion of the impression material during retrieval of stone casts, when multiple casts are poured in the same impression. This book is directed towards the effect of various tray spaces (2mm, 4mm and 6mm) and subsequent repeated pours (2 times) on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material. It was found that the vertical distance of stone dies decreased, whereas horizontal distance increased as the thickness of impression material is increased. There were statistically non significant changes occurring among the repeated pours in 2mm, 4mm and 6mm spaced custom trays.
A derivation is a function on an algebra which generalizes certain features of the derivative operator. Specifically, given an algebra A over a ring or field K, an K-derivation is an K-linear map D from A to itself that satisfies Leibniz's law: D(ab)=(Da)b+a(Db). More generally, an K-linear map D of A into an A-module M, satisfying the Leibniz law is also called a derivation. The collection of all K-derivation of A to itself is denoted by Der(A). The collection of K-derivations of A into an A-module M is denoted by Der(A,M). Derivations occur in many different contexts in diverse areas of mathematics. If the algebra A is noncommutative, then the commutator with respect to an element of the algebra A defines a linear endomorphism of A to itself, which is a derivation over K. Furthermore, the K-module Der(A) forms a Lie algebra with respect to Lie bracket defined by the commutator: [D1,D2]=D1 D2 - D2 D1. In this book we deal with the derivations of Leibniz algebras. The Leibniz algebra is a generalization of Lie algebra, so it makes sense to study the problems related to Lie algebras for the class of Leibniz algebras.
Denture bases have been fabricated using acrylic reins. Though acrylic resin has many advantages such as easy processing / curing, but has a limitation of final contraction during curing. This movement of teeth results in disturbed occlusion causing unstable dentures The movement of teeth may occur as a result of processing procedures and dimensional changes of acrylic denture base during curing, deflasking, finishing and polishing. This book compares two curing methods for acrylic to prevent minimum tooth movement in polymerised acrylic denture bases.
In this book, an attempt has been made to propose some new estimation procedures for the linear regression models such as elemental slopes methods, Grouping method, Hat diagonals method, and Dispersion and Correlation methods for estimating for estimating the parameters of the linear regression models. The proposed methods have been applied to two and three variables linear models for their validity.In this book Introduction given in the Chapter I, some important existing estimation procedures such as OLS, GLS, WLS, RLS and ML have been described in Chapter II. A brief about the review of the literature has been described in chapter III. In Chapter IV, some new estimation methods namely Elemental Slopes method, Grouping method, Hat diagonals method and Dispersion and Corrrelation methods have been proposed and applied to two and three variables linear models for their validity. The summary and conclusions besides the suggestions for future research, have been give in Chapter V. The slected list of research articles has been presented under Bibliography.
This Project focuses on obtaining an approximation solution for solving a system of two dimensional linear Fredholm integral equations of the 2nd kind. Various numerical procedures are reformulated and applied for solving the above system with their newly written computer programs.such as;Numerical integrations methods for multiple integral (composite Simpson’s method & composite trapezoid method); four different types of weighted residual methods (collocation method, sub-domain method,least square method and Galerkin method) and two different types of Iterative methods (successive approximation method and Adomian decomposition method).
One-dimensional and multi-dimensional linear regression sequences, sequences of partial sums, and series whose terms are elements of regression sequences appear as mathematical models in different fields of modern science. Their various applications in physics, economics, biology, cybernetics, actuary and financial mathematics motivate further study of the topic. In this book, we study the asymptotic behaviour of sequences of sums whose terms are elements of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional linear regressions with independent and symmetric noise. In particular, a great attention is paid to conditions which provide the almost sure convergence of series with regression terms. These problems are considered in both finite-dimensional and separable Banach spaces. This book is a result of joint successful work by Dr. Prof. V. Buldygin and Dr. M. Runovska.
The temporomandibular joint is a thee dimensional structure; it should be evaluated in the three planes using accurate measurements regarding inclination, position and other parameters such as length, height, width as well as surface area of each component in the three orthogonal planes by precise localization of landmarks in the three planes rather than less accurate identification in two planes. 1- A stepwise standardized CBCT analysis of the TMJ is presented. Through using this detailed analysis, orthodontists and TMJ surgeon can three dimensionally evaluate morphological and positional changes in the TMJ. 2- The analysis provided descriptive measurements for condylar position in the three orthogonal planes in relation to the joint spaces and for assessment of condylar symmetry. 3- Slice area and polygonal measurements presented in this analysis are capable of detecting even small osseous changes in the temporomandibular joint components.
Cypermethrin and carbendazim are synthetic pesticides that have been in use for more than a decade. Low-dose and time dependent effect of these pesticides in male albino rat serum will highlight early hematological changes. Cypermethrin and carbendazim were administered in individual and combined form at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM for durations of 12 and 24 h in the different group of rats. The results of the study displayed the hematological changes in rat blood. Hematological markers such as Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Neutrophils, Eosinophil, Lymphocytes and Platelet were significantly changed in male albino rat following the administration of these pesticides at different concentration. Observation of changes in these hematological markers confirmed an inference. The overall experimental results suggest that even low dose of these pesticides has a significant negative effect on animal cell function.
The importance of Global Environmental Movement has taken a vital place all over the World and the governments around the worlds have also given priority to emphasis the Global Environmental Movement issues. All the Nations have had been realising the effect of Global Warming and facing the disadvantages of the changes. Most importantly, all the Nations are scared to face the coming effects of the Global Environmental Changes if UN fails to unite the Nations in a unanimous platform to save the World. This book is a little effort to engage the author in the movement to save the World from the Global Environmental Changes. In this book the author has focused his work in relation to the Effect of Trans-boundary Sharing Water because equal Sharing water could help in various ways to face the challenge of Global Environmental effect. Further the author has emphasised mainly the effect of sharing water between Bangladesh and India, by comparing with other regional and bilateral trans-boundary agreements because Bangladesh has had been suffering in many ways because of unequal sharing water with India.
This book provides the Classification of Six dimensional solvable, indecomposable Lie algebras that have a five-dimensional nilradical. Such algebras were classified by the Russian mathematician G. M. Mubarakzyanov in a paper published in 1963. Depending on the structure of the five dimensional nilradical his paper has nine paragraphs. The paper contains errors because calculations were done by hand and the list of algebras is incomplete. Also some of his Lie algebras are isomorphic between themselves. MAPLE was used extensively with some routines to help finesse Mubarakzyanov’s list. Precisely, all the misprints were corrected and complete list of algebras was obtained: in Paragraph 6 he disregarded a case which gives two new Lie algebras. There is also one new Lie algebra in Paragraph 2, one in Paragraph 5 and two new Lie algebras in Paragraph 7.
The radiator plays a very important role in an automobile. It dissipates the waste heat generated after the combustion process and useful work has been done to prevent engine overheating. The effectiveness with which waste heat is transferred from the engine walls to the surrounding is crucial in preserving the material integrity of the engine and enhancing the performance of the engine. This book looked at the effect of sand blocking the heat transfer area of the radiator and its effect on the engine coolant through the conduct of experiments and a mathematical model developed. This book shed some light on the radiator modeling using Matlab simulation to assess the effect of dirt on the blockage of the radiator on the performance of an engine cooling system. This book provide useful information for all Engineers or anyone else who may be using vehicle and are interesting in knowing more about radiator and Engine Cooling System.