When Compendium II was published about a year ago, we remarked that Russia had gone through legislative and political changes in 2012/2013 that - from a lawyer's perspective - could be described as dramatic. We would have been more cautious about using the word 'dramatic' had we known then what developments were to come in the year that followed. The impact of the Ukraine crisis on the Russian business environment, including business law, has been profound. Planned areas of development (such as reforming the civil law regime and introducing WTO rules following Russia's accession in 2012) have been outside the spotlight, while the political disputes between Russia and many Western countries relating to the events in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine, followed by the imposition of U.S. and EU sanctions, seemed capable of threatening the foundations of Russian business. The Ukraine crisis is not yet over, and the threat of more severe sanctions still hangs over business relations between Russia and its foreign partners. As a result, a significant number of chapters in this Compendium III discuss legal changes and sanctions legislation triggered by the situation in Ukraine. At the level of 'normal' legislative developments, there were still numerous changes over the past year with far-reaching consequences for Russian business law. The reform of the Russian Civil Code has been continuing, with various bills already enacted, and this process will continue. Readership. Managers, businesspeople, in-house counsel, lawyers in private practice and students will, we hope, find this book to be especially useful.
Language learning strategies received great interest from researchers since the 1970s. The relationship between strategy use, strategy instruction and language proficiency has attracted much attention and debate over the years. Strategy instruction research is expected to produce different results in different parts of the world largely because of the effect of different educational systems and cultural values. This study attempted at investigating strategy instruction within the Saudi context as a contribution to the growing global picture of cross-cultural strategy use and instruction. This accumulation of findings from research around the world will be useful for language teachers, researchers and program designers. The study targeted Saudi female English majors at King Saud university to investigate the relationship between explicit first language strategy instruction and language learning examining whether there will be a difference in strategy use after strategy instruction. Moreover, the study also investigated the effect of the strategy course on subjects’ language proficiency level by the end of the semester in three different skills reading, writing, and listening.
The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.