Dengue is endemic all over India so is the occupational and non-occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. The pathogenesis of dengue depends upon the immune response of the body. The intermediary products generated during reduction of chromium (VI) kill the target cells including leucocytes by apoptosis. This effect of chromium compromises the immune response of the host. It is, therefore, possible that the chromium toxicity may affect the disease process during dengue virus infection. There are no reports in literature on the outcome of dengue virus infections during chromium toxicity, therefore, this book is based on the experimental attempts which has been made to answer the some basic questions related to pathogenesis of dengue virus infections during chromium toxicity like What are the effects of subtoxic dose of Cr (VI) on the peripheral blood cells of mice during dengue virus infection? Does Cr (VI) toxicity enhance the ill effects of DV on splenic macrophage and lymphocyte functions? Can the cells of immune system detoxify Cr (VI)? etc.
Background: With the goal of understanding how the virus behaves is necessary a development of animal models and adapted viral strains that are able to infect immunocompetent animals and can cause symptoms in animals similar to human symptoms. Methodology/Principal Findings: Our methodology was basically a pass strain of dengue type 1 or serotype 1 (DENV -1) several times in brain of newborn mice and inoculation of this virus in immunocompetent mice C57Black/6, (WT) and for comparison as well as in immunodeficient animals IFN?-/- (susceptible to virus) as iNOS-/- (resistant to virus) and after analyzing the results. The adaptation of dengue virus in immunocompetent animals can be done in laboratory conditions, as demonstrated and cause symptoms in WT mice that mimics human dengue symptoms as Haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia and lowest levels of white blood cells. The levels of IFN-?, IL-10 and TNF-? in WT nice were significantly increased compared to uninfected controls. Was also found, cellular infiltrates in the livers of infected animals. Conclusions/Significance: The virus causes changes in data of complete blood count similar to changes caused by infection in humans.
Dengue is the most important mosquito borne disease because of its escalating spread affecting about 50-100 million people each year. The principal dengue vector Aedes aegypti is now well established in almost countries of the tropics and subtropics with estimated 3.6 billion people at risk of contracting dengue. In recent years, the rapid expanding of secondary vector A. albopictus to the uninfested regions including Europe has increased its concern for inflicting dengue. Nepal experienced the first indigenous transmission of dengue virus in 2006. This book furnishes the clear insights of the status of dengue burden in some western lowlands of Nepal. The acute infection of dengue virus was assessed by serological assay and the high positivity to dengue virus underscores the co-circulation of dengue viruses in the terai region, hinting possible epidemic of DHF. The book could be useful to the researchers, university students and other stakeholders to understand the distributions of the disease in the newly affected country and realize the necessity of prospective research avenues to better understand the disease dynamics and vector ecology for crafting effective control measures.
Plant face unfavorable conditions like salinity, drought and heavy metal contamination.The sixth abundant element in earth crust is chromium. Due to human activities chromium release in the environment.Chromium compounds are highly toxic to plants. Chickpea are the third important legume in the world belonging to family Fabaceae grown in Asia, Africa and America.The aim of my research to examine the effect of chromium toxicity on advance line(NCS-9917) of desi Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Dengue Virus (DV) is a mosquito borne disease and important public health problem in low land of Terai region in Nepal. There are limited information on the prevalence of the disease until now. This study was designed to estimate sero-prevalence of dengue virus infection in the post monsoon period (Aug-Nov) of 2008/2009 in Nepalese patients with fever visiting hospitals of Mahendranagar, Dhangadi and Dang.Serum samples were collected from 283 patients visiting hospital with history of fever & clinically suspected DF. The sero-prevalence of dengue virus specific IgM was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (PanBio, Australia).Molecular diagnosis based on RT-PCR was also performed to optimize the conditions and confirmatory diagnosis in the acute samples. The IgM capture ELISA has become the most accepted technique for the diagnosis of dengue in developing countries like Nepal.
The share of faults and errors we are having will be proved a great problem for MOTHER EARTH. The present work is based on the extent of Cr metal pollution in the river and ponds, its phyto-genotoxic effect on Eichhornia crassipes along with plant’s role as phytoremedial tool. Sanguinely this book unravels about low cost, ecofriendly remedy for trim down the environmental toxicity. May the almighty GOD bless the readers all suceess.
Arsenic, a potent toxic mutagenic and xenobiotic metalloid, has been detected during the last 5 years as a major pollutant of drinking water in Bangladesh, Northern Chile, Thailand, Taiwan, China, Inner Mongolia, Mexico, Argentina, Finland, Hungary and India. Both the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the US Environmental Protection Agency have given the highest priority to arsenic-related toxic studies and ranked it number one on the most hazardous substances list, based on a combination of its incidence, toxicity and potential for human exposure. Survey reports revealed that the intake of arsenic-contaminated drinking water caused several reproductive disturbances in women. There is a lack of literature data related to the effect of arsenic on male reproduction, particularly at the dose levels occurring in drinking water in wide areas of India and in other countries. Therefore we have evaluated systematically and presented data in this book whether arsenic has any significant effect on reproduction and metabolism in adult male Swiss albino mice. This book also provides valuable information on protective effect of thiol compounds on arsenic-induced toxicity.
This book deals with the heavy metal (Chromium, Nickel & Zinc) toxicity consequences in the fresh water fish Labeo rohita commonly known as Rohu which is one of the major Indian common carp. Rohu is economically important fish as it is consumed as staple food in most parts of India. Industrialization leads to the heavy metal pollution of the water bodies which invariably affects the fish health and ultimately has bad effect on consumers' well being.
Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging mosquito borne viral disease and important public health problem in low land of Terai region which is also expanding to hilly region. This study was designed to estimate sero-prevalence of dengue virus infection in the post monsoon period (Jun-Dec) of 2010 in Nepalese patients with fever visiting hospitals of Birganj, Damouli, Biratnagar and Dhading Besi. Serum samples were collected from 280 patients visiting hospitals with history of fever & clinically suspected DF. The sero-prevalence of dengue virus specific IgM was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (SD, Korea). Molecular diagnosis based on RT-PCR was also performed for the confirmatory diagnosis. The IgM capture ELISA has become the most accepted technique for the diagnosis of dengue in developing countries like Nepal.
Citronella oil is a volatile oil obtained from the plant Cymbopogon winteratus.The oil contains approximately 30% citronella and 40% geranial.The therapeutic properties of citronella oil are antiseptic,diaphoretic,insecticidal, paracidal,deodorant,stimulatant and tonic etc.It is also used in cosmetic industry.Hence,human beings are in direct contact contact with citronella oil.Therefore,the present work was an attempt to evaluate the cytogenetic toxicity of this oil on mitotic chromosome,meiotic chromosome,sperm counting and sperm head morphology of mice Mus musculus.The result suggested that all three doses i.e 50 ppm,100 ppm and 200 ppm significantly increased the chromosomal abnormalities both in bone marrow and primary spermatocytes. Notable increase in the frequency of abnormal sperms as well as significant reduction in epididymal sperm count were also ovserved in treated mice. On the basis of above accounts it is clear that the test chemical i.e citronella oil is not fully safe. It may cause cytogenetic toxicity, mutgenicity as weel as carcinogenicity.
Dengue infection is one of the most important Arboviral infections of humans and is one of the most important Tropical Infectious Disease of the World. The occurance of Neurological Manifestations in Dengue infection have been recognized for long. In previous reports of neurologic involvement in Dengue infections, the observed “Encephalopathy” was thought to be due to prolong shock, along with fluid extravasation, cerebral edema, hyponatremia and liver failure. Recently however, Direct Neurotropic Potential of the virus has been recognized. In India too, Neurological complications of Dengue have been recognized. Hence this book should shed some light on "The Incidence of CNS Manifestations in Children with Dengue Fever, Spectrum of Neurological Manifestations and Presence of Dengue Specific IgM antibodies in the CSF". This book shall serve as a useful guide for medical students, postgraduates and clinicians. Also a handy book for those interested in Tropical Infectious Disesases.
Dengue fever also known as break bone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has four different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases.
The main objectives of this book are to proved annotation of dengue virus serotypes genomes at nucleotide level for better understanding and ease organization. Genome Organization and Genome Mapping of all serotypes of Dengue Virus to sort out comparative genome analysis. Distribution of structural and non-structural proteins on the basis of Size. DENV Intra-specie Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in C/PrM region of Pakistan sequences, in aim to compare SNP with reference DENV genome. Protein Level Annotation to sort out motifs of super families and domains aligned between four serotypes of Dengue virus. Functional Annotation of proteins to find out functions of domains and motifs. Evolutionary Analysis of DENV C/PrM region (in focus to Pakistan C/PrM sequences) and DENV four serotypes whole genomes of whole world. Process Level Annotation. To check the importance of N-Glycosylation and O-Glycosylation in the dengue virus disease virulence.
The cat has been living in close association with humans for at least 3500 years, the ancient Egyptians routinely used cats to keep mice and other rodents away from their grain. The history of domestic cat may stretch back even further, as 8,000 year-old bone of humans and cats were found buried together on the island of Cyprus. Cats are social, extroverted cats that love human companionship and like being part of whatever's going on. They often attach strongly to one person, demanding constant attention from that person. Currently, the cat is the world's most popular household pet. The domestic cat is the definitive host for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and the virus has a worldwide distribution. FeLV is a retroviruses that represent one of the most common and important infectious diseases of cats worldwide. It is responsible for more death among cats than any other infectious disease. This book illustrates the introduction, rapid diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, prevention and control of FeLV in cats.
Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. Over half of the world’s population live in areas at risk of dengue infection. The disease is transmitted principally by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Dengue Outbreaks were recorded in all countries of the Indian Subcontinent with Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka resulting in huge number of cases and deaths. It is a disease caused by four serotypes of a same virus i.e. DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. In all major outbreaks, DENV2 and DENV3 were recorded as dominating and disastrous serotypes in the region. Climate is a vital factor influencing DF outbreaks; temperature, humidity, rainfall and flood play a fundamental role in DF outbreaks, as providing optimum conditions for vector population growth.Presently, prime prevention of dengue is possible only with vector control and personal protection from the bites of infected mosquitoes.