Folklore, in fact, is the 'Language of Root' and the 'Song of Soil', that is originated in the ceop fields and meadows, in the trees and creepers and in the minds of human beings. This unknown, unlighted life culture and mind culture is mostly agriculture based. The tremendous riches of folk knowledge on agriculture is unrevealed under the cover of scientific wisdom. The culture allied to procurement of food is 'Farmlore'. It is the base, and different super structures are created on it. Language, religion, superstition, ritual, dress, art, song, dance, festivals, etc are originated based on ground production. There is a close-set linkage between knowledge and farmlore. both farmlore and indigenous knowledge are the traditional-bound resources of the folk people, so these are seen to be integrated in an unique fashion. Dr. Monanjali Bandyopadhyay and Dr. Kalyan Chakraborti, well known couple in the field of Folklore research, had traveled in the riches of farmlore pertaining to date-sugar-palm of Bengal through participatory rural folk appraisal. This treatise is the joint harvest of them through their direct and integrated field investigation among the Seuli-folk of Bengal.
This investigation aimed to explore the antioxidant potential of date fruit extract using butter as an oxidation substrate on the basis of certain instrumental, orthodox analytical techniques and sensory characteristics. The objectives of this study were to characterize the date extract for polyphenolic compounds, free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of nitric oxide macromolecules and to study the effect of various concentrations of the date palm extract on oxidative stability and sensory characteristics. The butter was added with date palm extract and compared with a control, stored at refrigeration and ambient temperature during winter months for 90-days at the interval of 30-days. Supplementation of butters with date palm fruit extract revealed a significant effect on inhibition of peroxide, anisidine and iodine values. Sensory evaluation of supplemented butter added with various concentrations of date palm extract stored revealed the effect of treatments, storage period and their interaction to be significant. The results indicate that ethanolic date palm extract can be used as natural antioxidant source for the long term storage of butter at ambient temperature.
This book provides the usefulness of date palm as adsorbent in the removal of unwanted pollutants such as dyes, heavy metals, organic compounds and pesticides. Many studies on adsorption properties of various low cost adsorbent such as agricultural waste and activated carbon based on agricultural wastes have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that date palm is the most promising adsorbents for removing pollutants from waste water.
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the one of the oldest fruit crops being associated to many countries civilizationThe crop is indigenous to countries around Persian Gulf. Date palm is distributed in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Egypt and Algeria, which are the main date palm producing countries in the world. It contains high calorific value (3150 calories kg-1 of fresh fruits), 60-65 % sugar, and fair amount of fiber (2.5 %), protein (2.0%), fat (2.0%) and minerals up to (2.0%). Being tolerant to drought and salinity, it is a potential fruit tree of dry and arid parts of the country. The date palm leaves are also used for making temporary huts and preparation of baskets, broom, ropes and handicraft items. The seed kernel is used in making cattle feed. Being tolerant to drought and salinity, it is a potential fruit tree of dry and arid parts of the country. It contains huge collection of review of literature, experimental methodology, results and discussion. It will be a perfect workbook for, who is directly and indirectly engaged in research work related to date palm
In Date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) molecular characterization to find the best genotype and male/female identification at an early stage before flowering is of great economic significance for farmers. Genetic finger printing using molecular markers is an important tool. In present investigation two types of marker viz., RAPD and ISSR were applied in 8 Date palm genotypes and five types of markers RAPD, ISSR, SSR, ITS and 18s rRNA gene were applied in 5 genotypes of Date palm (Ghanshyam, Early maturing, Late maturing, Male 2 small and Male1 tall) and at the same time Ghanshyam was also screened with its 14 seedling genotypesRAPD markers were more efficient than ISSR assay with regard to polymorphic detection; RAPD markers detected 36.84% polymorphism as compared to 0.12% by ISSR markers. Cluster analysis by UPGMA shows that the dendrogram obtained was similar for RAPD and RAPD + ISSR, In other case study of 5 Date palm genotypes (Ghanshyam, Early maturing, Late maturing, Male 2 small and Male1 tall), five type of markers with one best primer for each marker (RAPD, ISSR, SSR, ITS and18s rRNA) were used.
This study confirmed the high genetic diversity among date palms in Sudan which was reported in previous studies. The use of morphological characterization, molecular analysis and interviewing of farmers, assisted in the successful fulfillment of the set of objectives to collect, document and analyze data pertaining to the present status of local date palm genetic resources in the Northern region of Sudan (River Nile and Northern States) with regard to cultivars, production and threats. The results of this study will contribute to the formulation of a national strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of the date palm genetic resources in Sudan. Further studies including chloroplast DNA to identify the origin of the seedling cultivars (Jaw and males) are warranted.
Date palm fruit is always taken as a gift from Almighty ALLAH by dint of which it also signifies the glory of the Islamic world. The fruit has been quoted in 20 verses of the Holy Quran. In Pakistan, date palm is considered to be the third major fruit crop after citrus and mango and it is the fifth largest date producer in the world. Dates are rich in certain nutrients and provide a good source of rapid energy due to their high carbohydrates content. These are being rich in potassium and extremely low in sodium are desirable food for hypersensitive persons. For commercial cultivation of date palm artificial pollination is required using compatible pollen source. The pollen has been found to exert a direct influence on the size, shape and color of the fruit and seed of different varieties. The influence of the male parent on the development of the date fruit is precise and definite and varies with the particular male used to fecundate the female flowers. Cultivar ‘Dhakki’ is one of the most important date palm of the country and is famous for fresh, dry and ‘Chouara’ making.
Family Palmae (Arecaceae) is a family of monocotyledons comprising of about 200 genera and 1,500 species. Phoenix L. is one of the genera which contain a dozen species, all native to the tropical or subtropical regions of Africa or Southern Asia. Date palm is diploid (2n=36), perennial tree. Being dioecious in nature, date palm has separate female and male individuals. Female palm trees are cultivated for their nutritive fruits while male trees produce pollens. The present research was conducted at Date Palm Research Station, Jhang, Pakistan, where 32 cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were studied for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics in order to obtain accurate knowledge and description of the genetic resources. The identification of the most relevant characteristics of date palm was done by descriptors in field surveys during vegetative and reproductive periods. Fruits were taken to Anatomy lab, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan where measurements regarding qualitative and quantitative characteristics were recorded.
Incense has been used since ancient times to produce pleasant fragrances or to mask odors, and incense burning has been incorporated in many religious ceremonies and practices. Burning of Arabian incense (bakhour) is common in Arabian households and places of worship, often in confined, poorly ventilated places. Incense emissions are an important source of indoor air pollution that may be associated with respiratory disorders or increased risk of cancer. Particulate matter (PM), generated during combustion processes and occurring in fine and ultrafine size fractions, is a common component of indoor air. Date palm belonging to family Arecaceae, called ‘Nakhla’ and the ‘Tree of Life’ by the Arabs, is considered as one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees. It is believed to be indigenous to the countries around the Arabian Gulf. In Folkloric practice, date represents an essential meal in some Arab area. DPP has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Egyptian herbal medicine for improving male and female fertility. Phytochemical studies of DPP showed the presence of estrone, ?-amirin, triterpenoidal saponins, flavonoids and a crude gonadotrophic substance.
With the present uncertainty in the world food supply and the expected increase in demand, the date palm could be a good source of food of high nutritional value. The dioecious nature of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) together with its natural open cross-pollination necessitates vegetative propagation to maintain and perpetuate the unique parental quality attributes. However, it is very difficult to propagate date palms by conventional vegetative propagation techniques, unless offshoots of appropriate size are treated with rooting hormones.Generally, most of the parameters considered varied significantly due to differences in offshoot size and concentration of IBA, indicating an interaction between the two factors.The response of date palm offshoots to increased level of IBA continued to promote rooting significantly up to the highest level, i.e. 3000 ppm. Likewise, the response of offshoots in terms of rooting increased as the base diameter of the offshoot increased.
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is economically 3rd major fruit crop after citrus and mango in Pakistan and country ranks 5th leading producer globally. Rich soil, abundant sunshine and four distinct seasons make country an ideal place for cultivating a variety of agriculture crops. The above factors help in creating a very special taste in our farm produce, particularly in fruits: mangoes, apples, and dates. Root anatomical structures of 34 date palm cultivars were measured and to investigate the significance of root structures in identification. Relative importances of anatomical characters of cultivars were emphasized and adaptive component of root in relation to habitat ecology was examined. Size of epidermis cells, size and shape of outer cortical region, presence of sclerification in outer cortex, sclerenchyma bundles in cortical region and presence of aerenchyma were quite variable in all the cultivars studied. Similarly endodermal layer thickness, thickness of outer tangential wall of endodermis, shape and size of phloem region, size and arrangement of metaxylem vessels and sclerification in the pith region showed extremely high magnitude of diversity.
In areas scarce in water the possibilities of traditional technologies applied to economise on water resources and to provide crop yield are running short and now there is a sharp need in natural-biological technologies, of which one is the purposeful and large-scale application of mycorrhiza in cultivated lands and perennial plantations.The application of mycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with plants on agrotechnological level may considerably reduce the negative effect of water deficit and unfavourable climatic conditions on the productivity of agrocenoses and ensure high yield.
Different raw materials including twenty one date palm varieties grown in Pakistan were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics to assess their suitability for the preparation of date bars. All date varieties are good source of sugars like fructose, minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron, phenolic compounds indicating their antioxidant capacity but are low in anti-nutritional factors and thus are suitable for consumption and processing. On the basis of results of physico-chemical analysis, best suited date variety (Karblain), gram flour (roasted), corn flour (roasted), peanuts and almonds were found suitable to contribute towards nutritional requirements including energy and protein for the preparation of date bars. Protein level in date bars was optimized using Response Surface Methodology. Whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates were used for protein supplementation. Date bars were found suitable for storage at ambient conditions upto three months without any deterioration in quality attributes and stability.
The experimental treatments were laid down in a split plot design with three replications to determine the effects of sowing date, seeding rate & varieties on the yield & yield components of rice. Three sowing date treatments were assigned to main plots; while factorial combinations of three seeding rates & three rice varieties (X-Jigna, Gumara and Superica- 1) were randomly allocated to subplots. Variety X- Jigna produced significantly higher number of panicles/0.5 m row than Gumara & Superica-1, whereas Superica-1 & X-Jigna produce comparable number of spiklets per panicle which was significantly greater than that of Gumara. The third sowing date gave the highest harvest index than the other two sowing dates. Compared to the other varieties X-Jigna exhibited the highest harvest index. Similarly 75kg/ha seeding rate gave the highest harvest index compared with the remaining two seeding rates. Based upon the present study findings it may be tentatively recommended that variety Supereica-1 should be planted 10 days after the farmers planting time. On the 3rd sowing date, both X-Jigna & Gumara resulted in higher grain yields at a seeding rate of 75kg/ha.
Archie Andrews and his calamitous crew of screwball schoolmates are some of the best-known and most beloved characters in the history of comics. Archie, Betty, Veronica, Reggie, Jughead, and the rest of the Riverdale gang have seen seventy years of teenage antics, filtered through the lenses of generation after generation of readers. Now Archie fans of all ages can return to the beginning of it all with Archie Archives from Dark Horse Comics. This beautifully reproduced collection includes over 200 pages of hilarious high-school high jinks and the cartooning greats who brought Archie to life!