Colorectal Cancer (CRC) sites among 5 top cancers in Kashmir (North India) owing to peculiar dietary habits and life style. In this book author has tried to summarize colorectal cancer and its etio-pathology. Author has studied various genes and their relationship with the development of CRC. Significant role of reduced expression of Axin in the development of CRC has been found and multistep model of CRC carcinogenesis has been supported in which alteration of DCC is late event and that of Axin an early event. Various genetic factors responsible for the development of colorectal cancer have been discussed. This book will be helpful for the students as well as researcher working in the field of cancer genetics interested in the study of CRC cancer.
This work deals with colorectal cancer, especially with its primary prevention. The theoretical part deals with the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the function of the colon and the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The main attention is focused on factors of primary prevention which are divided into three groups: risk, protective and chemopreventive. The practical part of this work explores how much is a sample of healthy population informed about elements of primary and secondary prevention.
Accurate prediction of the risk of colorectal cancer in a patient visiting their family doctor with certain bowel or other symptoms and signs is the key to early diagnosis and treatment which directly affects patient survival. The traditional method of identifying so called 'high risk' symtoms and signs and using these for 'fast-tracking' these patients to the hospital has been the cornerstone of the 'Two-Week-Wait' referral system currently in use in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. This book reviews this system and its successes and shortcomings. The results of a project validating an alternative computer software-based questionnaire system are reviewed and discussed. The results show this system to be significantly more specific leading to fewer unnecessary fast-track referrals and better, more effective use of limited resources. The book also reviews colorectal cancers presenting as an emergency which appear to be a totally different breed altogether and right sided colon cancers which can be difficult to diagnose. Colorectal cancers in the immigrant asian population are also discussed.
Colorectal cancer ranked among the top ten most common cancers and happened among man in Malaysia. According WHO, more than 70 % patients of cancer have pain and can be controlled by simple opiods.Pain in cancer can due itself and results from chemotherapy .Many of cancer colorectal patient gets adequate pain management and unrelieved after pain management is given. This research carried out to the Female and male Oncology patient in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Had a permission letter from Pengarah Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Head of Department of radiotherapy and oncology, Area matron and all sisters of Oncology ward. The study was carried out in September 2008 within 1 week from 23rd September 2008 to 29th September 2008.The technique used in this study was a self administered questionnaire. Having consent from the respondents’ .The type of data research is qualitative data: these are collected in the form of words and pictures. After this study done, the determination of difference before and after pain management given was analyze and the study showed pain management still inadequate because the daily functions was interfere. From demographic, pain management was showed that male is the
Book DescriptionThe latest edition in the bestselling What Your Doctor May Not Tell You series explodes the myths and misconceptions about the third most common-and second most deadly-form of cancer in the United States. Over 50,000 men and women die from colorectal cancer each year-a particularly alarming statistic since it is also one of the most preventable and treatable cancers. In fact, it is estimated that over one-third of colorectal cancer deaths could have been avoided. Now, there's hope. This invaluable book contains important information on beating colorectal cancer, including the six biggest lifestyle threats, the three nutritional supplements anyone at risk should take, the optimal timeframe for screenings, the pros and cons of new detectiontests, and how to effectively treat cancerous and pre-cancerous polyps with both traditional and alternative methods.
Health informatics is the field that concerns itself with the information processing, and communication tasks of medical practice, education, and research, including the information science and the technology to support these tasks. but this culture does not exist in Pakistan. we explores the ideas or ways for implementation of an electronic medical record system at different hospitals of Pakistan. Statistical Suit for colorectal cancer patients record (SSCC) is introducing as a way to facilitate a centralized colorectal cancer patient information repository. Benefits realized by this system included improvements in colorectal cancer patient’s care, clinical research, and patient service and satisfaction. The tool excluded the need of statistician on routine basis in a hospital setting and the doctor have information of lengthy follow up patients, one click away. We also highlight the influence of gender and age on the occurrence of this malignancy in patients in local population by comparing analysis of the data from two largest Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital in Pakistan to give an estimate of the disease burden in heavily populated areas.
Carcinogenesis is a multi-aetiological process involving alterations of key biomolecular markers. These are recognised by the humoral system and known as Tumour Associated Antigens (TAA) against which the humoral system mounts an auto-antibody response. Cancer cells are subject to two key mortality barriers (M1 & M2) as described in the “2-hit” hypothesis. These are overcome by p53 dysfunction in M1 and hTERT re-expression in M2. Auto-antibodies are produced in response to these two TAA. This book investigates the significance of the anti-p53 and anti-hTERT auto-antibody response. The initial literature review of anti-p53 auto-antibody in all cancers (1979-2010) forms the largest body of evidence of correlation between anti-p53 auto-antibody and p53 mutation to date. This is followed by results of our anti-p53 study and evaluation of all published studies of anti-p53 in colorectal cancer. Anti-hTERT has only been reported once, using molecular recombination to develop the hTERT antigen. The latter section of this book aims to develop a less restrictive technology for mass detection of anti-hTERT. This humoral response could enable earlier identification of CRC and impact prognosis.
This book will teach and give an overview of the risk factors of colo-rectal cancer.Colon cancer can be prevented if there is early detection for colon polyp ;it is apre-cancerous lesions arises at the lining mucosa of colon and or rectum and if not removed it will transformed after 8 to 10 years to cancerous.it is easy to prevent colon cancer disease unless you have a non modifiable risk factors e.g family history.nurses have a vital role in such diseases.
This book describes the crucial molecular targets of colorectal cancer. It is considered as a serious health problem in most developed countries and is the third leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Colorectal cancer affects >1 million people every year and is responsible for >.5 million cancer-related annual deaths. Generally it is a multi-step process involving three distinct stages, initiation that alters the molecular message of a normal cell, followed by promotion and progression that ultimately ends up with a phenotypically altered "transformed cell". The concept of multi-stage carcinogenesis involves the sequential acquisition of cellular mutations followed by expansion of the mutated clone within a population of cells. During the development of cancer there are numerous signalling pathways(PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, COX-2, iNOS, Apoptosis, JAK/STAT3)were dysregulated. Developing new, effective and less side effect chemotherapeutic drugs are the challenge for researcher's. So, understanding the molecular alterations during colon cancer will enable to develop more chemotherapeutic drugs for colon cancer.
Colorectal carcinomas are the most common gastrointestinal tract tumors. 50-60% of colorectal carcinomas originate in rectum and sigmoid colon. Colorectal carcinoma is a frequent disease. New and improved surgical techniques and the implementation of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy have improved the 5 year survival rate significantly. Accurate preoperative assessment of tumor extent is essential for choosing the appropriate therapeutic strategy, and thus for patient prognosis.
While efforts put in the development of clinical biosensors are continuously increasing, the prevalence and mortality rates from cancer keeps on rising. Colon cancer, a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, is treatable if diagnosed early and therefore the development of an efficient biosensor, enabling early detection, is desirable. This research proposed, designed and demonstrated feasibility of a biosensing system comprised of a combination of bio-electrochemical and bio-electromechanical assays integrated into an analytical system performing complementary diagnostic tests directly on colorectal cancer biopsy and cell samples. The data collected by the system provided valuable information regarding the expression of intracellular, membrane bound and secreted biomarkers. The combination of innovative electrochemical approaches complemented by a novel bio-MEMS device yielded a multiple biomarker unique expression pattern. This system may operate in almost any clinical setting, is relatively cheap to manufacture and provides a comprehensive picture of the patients’ status. These virtues will hopefully help in translating this research into the clinical arena.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), a nuclear receptor, plays important role in adipocyte differentiation, inflammation and cancer such as colorectal cancer. Its still controversial issue whether PPAR gamma acts as tumor suppressor in colon carcinogenesis and its agonists' role in tumor growth inhibition or proliferation. However, in my book, I have shown PPAR gamma expression is lower in cancer cell-line compared to normal colon epithelial cell. This result also correlates with cancer tissue sample where most of the cases PPAR gamma expression is lower compared to the distant normal colon tissue sample of the patient. In another part of my work, I have investigated if PPAR gamma agonist, rosiglitazone can inhibit cancer cell proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. It was unexpected that both normal and cancer cell proliferation was inhibited at higher concentration of rosiglitazone (100mM). This was not previously shown whether PPAR gamma activation by its agonist has deleterios effect on colon epithelial cell proliferation. I have not seen any major difference in apoptotic cell Death or cell cycle arrest in both normal and cancer cell.
Connexins constitutes a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins that connect two adjacent cells by forming gap junctions. Connexins are multi- functional proteins with diverse role in the cell physiology. Connexin 43 is an important gap junction protein in vertebrates and is known for its tumor suppressive properties. Connexin 43 plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and is important for maintainance of tissue homeostasis. Cx43 is abundantly expressed in the human intestinal epithelial cells and muscularis mucosae. Therefore, loss of Cx43 protein may be associated with a role of this protein in the carcinogenic process of colorectal cancer. The down regulation of Cx43 expression in the human colorectal strongly supports the role of this protein in regulating cell growth. It provide a significant insight about the tumor suppressive properties of the Cx43 and its potential as a diagnostic marker for detecting colorectal cancer.
The development and progression of colonic carcinogenesis are known to be caused by the accumulation of cancer related genetic alterations.These alterations affect the expression of a variety of downstream genes, including those involved in regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, adhesion, and angiogenesis.p53 overexpression is a late event in colorectal tumorigenesis and can be used as a marker of the risk of malignant transformation of advanced colorectal adenoma.bcl-2 may play an important role in the early stage of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. PCNA expression is sequentially increased during neoplastic progression from normal colonic tissue into adenoma then carcinoma and plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. ER and PR may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis.Intratumoral quantification of CD34 expression in colorectal carcinoma reflects the grade of tumors and can predict lymph node involvement and lymphovascular permeation.MMP-7 plays an important role in the growth and malignant conversion of colorectal adenomas and might play an essential role in disease progression and lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Mass screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and removal of precursor lesions dramatically reduces both incidence and mortality from CRC. Most of the eligible U.S. population has not been screened. Disparity of screening exists within populations across the domains of race/ethnicity, gender and age. This research describes the patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening and the practice of provider ordering and patient refusal of colorectal cancer screening in one Veteran’s Affairs Healthcare setting (VA). This is a descriptive cross sectional study utilizing secondary analysis of data from VA electronic medical record system. 4,315 men and women aged 50 years and older eligible for screening between 2004 - 2005. Independent variables: demographic characteristics age, gender, race. Dependent variables: provider order, type of screening, screening not indicated, patient refusal of screening. Conclusions: Providers determined screening was not indicated primarily due to patient chronic health problems. A significant number of patients refused provider recommendations for screening. The reasons for patient refusal are unclear. Young black men refused more than any other group.