Mass screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and removal of precursor lesions dramatically reduces both incidence and mortality from CRC. Most of the eligible U.S. population has not been screened. Disparity of screening exists within populations across the domains of race/ethnicity, gender and age. This research describes the patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening and the practice of provider ordering and patient refusal of colorectal cancer screening in one Veteran’s Affairs Healthcare setting (VA). This is a descriptive cross sectional study utilizing secondary analysis of data from VA electronic medical record system. 4,315 men and women aged 50 years and older eligible for screening between 2004 - 2005. Independent variables: demographic characteristics age, gender, race. Dependent variables: provider order, type of screening, screening not indicated, patient refusal of screening. Conclusions: Providers determined screening was not indicated primarily due to patient chronic health problems. A significant number of patients refused provider recommendations for screening. The reasons for patient refusal are unclear. Young black men refused more than any other group.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is under investigation as a therapeutic target for cancers. Colon cancer cell lines are variably dependent on autocrine stimulation of EGFR. This book therefore,examines the effects of a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib (‘Iressa'', ZD1839), on proliferation and survival of colon cancer cell lines whose autonomous proliferation is either EGFR ligand dependent or EGFR ligand independent. Using computational approach , different structural analogues were developed for Iressa, how it inhibits the epidermal growth factor kinase ; the studies include nature of the colon cancer and how Iressa work to stop cancer and also explains the ligand binding in EGFR kinase. The consequences help to understand the nature of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and how to inhibit intra and extra cellular signal. The In-silico properties facilitate more efficient design of screening libraries and serves as a foundation for numerous ADME compound profiling and drug ability assessments along the drug discovery value chain. It also helps to stop the cancer development; a new guideline for the design of inhibitors.
In this proof of principle study, automated fluorescence Toponome Imaging System (TIS) was applied to find protein network structures distinguishing cancer tissue from normal colon tissue, taken from the same patient. Cancer specimen and corresponding normal tissue were harvested at colectomy from a single patient and prepared for TIS using a battery of different antibodies, including a number of putative stem cell markers. Expression of multiple protein clusters was determined and Combinatorial Molecular Phenotypes (CMPs) were analysed, using specific image-analysis tools. By sub-cellular visualization procedures it was found, that many cell surface membrane molecules were closely associated with cell-cytoskeleton as unique CMPs in the normal part of colon, while the same molecules were disassembled in the cancerous part, suggesting dysfunctional cytoskeleton-membrane complexes. Glandular and Stromal cell signatures were found, but interestingly also found were few TIS signatures identifying a very restricted subset of cells, expressing several putative stem cell markers, all restricted to the cancerous tissue.
Prostate Cancer is the second most common cancer that affect men after lung cancer. The cause of prostate cancer is largely unknown but the risk of developing it increases after the ages of 50 and 40 years among Whites and Blacks respectively. Prostate cancer develops very slowly, takes several years to manifest and often spreads to other parts of the body with very low cure rates by the time of diagnosis. Actually, most men die with this cancer and not of it. The survival rate of prostate cancer is between 5 and 10 years for all stages of the disease. Early detection of prostate cancer before it becomes clinically significant, markedly improves cure rates. Two screenings for prostate cancer; Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)test are recommended annually for men 40 years and older for early detection and prevention of prostate cancer. Diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruits, avoiding excessive meat eating and alcohol abuse may reduce a man's risk of prostate cancer. Your health care provider can give you more information about prostate screening and prevention of prostate cancer.
Cancer incidence risk, organ and effective dose of ninety (90) patients undergoing selected fluoroscopic procedures have been estimated. Organ and effective dose were estimated using Monte Carlo Code (PCXMC) with air kerma as input. Excess relative risk of site specific solid cancer and all solid cancers excluding thyroid and Non-melanoma skin cancers incidences were estimated using Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation VII Committee risk models. The mean effective dose was found to be 0.29 ± 0.07, 0.84 ± 0.13, 3.15 ± 0.44, 6.24 ± 0.7, 0.38 ± 0.05 mSv for urethrogram, barium swallow, barium meal, barium enema and myelogram examinations respectively. Longer radiation beam on time, high number of radiographs taken per patient and wide exposure beam area on the surface of the patient was found to contribute to increased doses in patient. Cancer incidence in patients of the same age was higher in women than in men except cancer of the colon which had higher incidence in men than in women and cancer of the liver which had equal incidences. Younger patients have a higher risk of incurring any type of cancer due to radiation exposure than older patients.
In this study, we evaluated the nurse’s roles. These roles were for two principles, as a counselor and as a provider for cervical cancer screening tests. In the first role, the nurse succeeded in counseling women about the benefits of cervical cancer screening by dismaying the stigma associated with cervical cancer screening. This counseling resulted in the acceptance of screening for early detection of cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid. The nurse demonstrated proficiency in the ability to successfully perform VIA and Pap smear screening. This study indicates also that VIA has a role in detection of cervical lesions that currently is not readily available in Egypt. By comparing VIA to Pap smear, we discovered that VIA is an effective method to detect precancerous/cancerous cervical lesions in a low resource setting with limited availability of cervical cancer screening. ?
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), a nuclear receptor, plays important role in adipocyte differentiation, inflammation and cancer such as colorectal cancer. Its still controversial issue whether PPAR gamma acts as tumor suppressor in colon carcinogenesis and its agonists' role in tumor growth inhibition or proliferation. However, in my book, I have shown PPAR gamma expression is lower in cancer cell-line compared to normal colon epithelial cell. This result also correlates with cancer tissue sample where most of the cases PPAR gamma expression is lower compared to the distant normal colon tissue sample of the patient. In another part of my work, I have investigated if PPAR gamma agonist, rosiglitazone can inhibit cancer cell proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. It was unexpected that both normal and cancer cell proliferation was inhibited at higher concentration of rosiglitazone (100mM). This was not previously shown whether PPAR gamma activation by its agonist has deleterios effect on colon epithelial cell proliferation. I have not seen any major difference in apoptotic cell Death or cell cycle arrest in both normal and cancer cell.
Escherichia coli is a gram negative normal inhabitant of human gut in large intestine. E.coliis responsible for three types of infections in humans: urinary tract infections (UTI), neonatal meningitis, and intestinal diseases (gastroenteritis). The dense bacterial consortium, called “microbiota” that inhibits the intestinal tract,playing a vital role in human health and diseases Cancer. Recent ground breaking discovery by Jobin group ( unveiled that E.coli NC101 strains of B2 phylotype widely known as commonsal cause to promote colon cancer. We also discussed other gut flora also play very important role in colon cancer development. Escherichia coli K1 pathotype is the most common cause of Gram-negative neonatal meningitis, with a case fatality rate of 15-40% and sever neurological defects in many of the survivor. (127,128) E. coli meningitis results from hematogenous spread, with the gastrointestinal tract implicated as the portal of entry. Escherichia coli sepsis occurs at a rate of one case per 1000 live births in the US. But Escherichia coli K1( brain meningitis isolate) induces apoptosis via CD95 in human colon cancer cell lines and rat intestinal epithelial cells
Colorectal carcinomas are the most common gastrointestinal tract tumors. 50-60% of colorectal carcinomas originate in rectum and sigmoid colon. Colorectal carcinoma is a frequent disease. New and improved surgical techniques and the implementation of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy have improved the 5 year survival rate significantly. Accurate preoperative assessment of tumor extent is essential for choosing the appropriate therapeutic strategy, and thus for patient prognosis.