'Analysis on credit concentration risk and NPA in Bank's Portfolio' analyzes the credit portfolio composition of a large and medium sized commercial bank in India to understand the nature and dimensions of industry –wise credit concentration risk and also evaluates its influence on Non-Performing Assets of the banks. The required data for this study was collected from industry-wise loan exposures of Indian Overseas Bank and yearly NPAs of the bank. The industry-wise credit concentration risk for each year is calculated by using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI index). Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was run on SPSS 19.0 to quantify the relationship between the credit concentration risk and Non-Performing Assets of the commercial bank. The results indicate that there exists a strong positive relationship between the industry-wise concentration risk and NPA of the commercial bank. Hence it is highly desirable for the commercial banks to have a diversified portfolio in order to reduce their Non –Performing Assets.
This monograph focuses on the liquidity risk of commercial banks in the Visegrad countries in the period from 2000 to 2011. This risk is comprehensively evaluated with several different methods: six liquidity ratios, panel data regression analysis with fixed effects, probit model and scenario analysis. The liquidity position, net position on the interbank market and strategy of liquidity risk management differ significantly in individual Visegrad countries. The capital adequacy is the most important determinant of bank liquidity. However, some other factors such as size of the bank, credit portfolio quality or macroeconomic development are significant as well. All three tested stress scenarios would have a negative influence on bank liquidity. A run on the bank would have most serious impact on the bank liquidity in all Visegrad countries. The use of committed loans is the second most severe scenario for Czech and Slovak banks and a crisis confidence in the interbank market for Hungarian and Polish banks.
This Book focuses on the Credit and Risk Analysis carried out by the Banks during appraisal of a loan proposals for Large Corporates i.e., with a turnover of above 500 crores. The Book focusses about the fundamental aspects involved in the Credit Appraisal and associated Risk Management. The Book deals from the perspective of a Bank and the Regulatory Norms as stipulated by the Regulator of Banking System in India i.e., Reserve Bank of India. The report is a descriptive study with basic objective of understanding procedural aspects involved in the Credit Appraisal and Risk Management before and after sanctioning of Bank Credit to the Large Corporate enterprises. During Credit Appraisal, Bank needs to do a 360° assessment of the proposal submitted by the Corporate by verifying its managerial integrity and commercial, technical, financial viability. It has been observed that the Credit risk management enables bank to identify, assess, manage proactively, and optimize their credit risk.
Co-operative banks have evolved as one of the most effective instruments of economic transformation. However, credit risk is acute due to their priority sector lending in the federal co-operative credit structure. Non Performing Assets (NPAs) in the loan portfolio jeopardize the economy at the macro and micro level. Despite effective credit management, the presence of NPAs in the portfolio of Central Co-operative Banks has become unavoidable. This book probes into the status of NPAs and their effect on the financial health - profitability, liquidity and solvency. Default of co-operative credit has a detrimental effect on each level of the federal co-operative credit structure. The causative factors for default of co-operative credit and the factors discriminating defaulters have been identified. This book would benefit researchers and bankers interested in the field of NPA Management in Co-operative Banks.
This Book discusses the concept of non-performing assets, the evaluation of credit risk, its significance, the quantification and monitoring of credit risk, and the study of action plan to mitigate the non-performing assets. The term NPA is explained and classified into various sub categories. Then the discussion is followed by key topics like asset classification, internal system for classification of assets as NPA, originating factors for the NPAs, Vehicles for NPA recovery, restructuring/ rescheduling of loans, and impact of NPAs. We will also throw a light on the Basel Recommendations and their efficacy in mitigating the credit risk. We will touch upon issues like estimation of capital requirements, segmentation of retail portfolios, etc. during our journey. In the final stage we delve upon the analytical part relating to the trends in the performance indicators of SBI, their correlations and the impact of NPAs on the performance of bank. From our study we find that there has been an improvement in the credit quality of the portfolios and also a rise in the advances. This is a good phenomenon; it can be attributed to the restructuring policy of Reserve Bank of India.
This work investigates the latest developments in commercial banking with regard to the measurement and management of risk and analyzes their effect on mid-market financial institutions. We look at how the implementation of advanced rating techniques influences the competitive position of market participants depending on their portfolio structure and competitive environment. To simulate rating sophistication we assume that in the process of credit assessment banks observe noisy signals about the creditworthiness of credit applicants. In the case of a competitive market then banks offer differing interest rates based on their loss estimates, whereas the customer chooses the credit with the lowest price. A simulation procedure is used in order to quantify the resulting profitability effects. The analysis reveals profitability differentials depending on the rating accuracy in different sections of the portfolio, the structure of the rating scale, and the specific competitive environment.
For all countries especially developing countries, banking system is the main component of the financial system.Hence, researchers and regulation authorities have focused on a banking system as a main cause or preventing factor responsible for financial and economic crises. This study presents comprehensive analysis of overall risk level, market risk and how selected variables affect credit risk in the Jordanian banks. This study provides a new theoretical background to understand how an overall level of banks risk and market risk has changed during 1995-2008. It also identifies the variables affecting credit risk in the Jordanian banks.The outcome of this study would increase the understanding and awareness of banks'' management about the adverse effect of credit risk on their profit. Further, it helps the managers to minimize the credit risk level and improve their appropriate lending policies by taking in their consideration the significant variables that are identified by this study. In addition, the results of this study help supervising authorities to ensure that adequate policies and procedures are in place at various banks to minimize risks as far as possible.
In view of growing complexity of banks’ business and the dynamic operating environment, risk management has become very significant, especially in the financial sector. Risk at the apex level may be visualized as the probability of a banks’ financial health being impaired due to one or more contingent factors. While the parameters indicating the banks’ health may vary from net interest margin to market value of equity, the factor which can cause the important are also numerous. For management of risk at corporate level, various risks like credit risk, market risk or operational risk have to be converted into one composite measure. Therefore, it is necessary that measurement of operational risk should be in tandem with other measurements of credit and market risk so that the requisite composite estimate can be worked out. So, regarding to international banking rule (Basel Committee Accords) and RBI guidelines the investigation of risk analysis and risk management in Co-Op banks is being most important.
This book provides a model of Z Score prediction conditional on internal parameters of Z Score. Z Score is being evaluated for banks when they need funds. Credit risk is of great concern for most banks as credit risk is that risk that can easily and most likely prompts banks failure. Adequately managing credit risk in financial institutes is critical for survival and growth of the banking industry. Addressing these concerns for enhanced financial decision making in this analysis Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used for prediction and estimation of internal ratios for Z score. The sample size selected is a few major players both in the government and private sector of Indian Banking Industry. The analysis incorporates Z Score values to estimate the terms, viability and period for credit.
Risk Management is one of the challenging tasks in financial industries. In banking system risk occurs due to internal and external factors, like government intervention with fiscal policies. To measure the efficiency of banks we need to identify the risk factors in banks. Impact of this risk factors is disentangle from overall efficiency. Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and (Data Envelopment Analysis)are two major techniques used to measure the efficiency of organizational units where multiple inputs and outputs makes comparison difficult. This thesis explains about the DEA analysis, how to assess and disentangle the risk factors effect from overall efficiency in different stages. DEAP,EMS and QSB are some of the computer oriented programmes useful in calculating efficiency. SAS is also one of the major high level programming language useful to solve linear and non-linear programming techniques. The ultimate objective is to identify which banks were seriously affecting with this risk factors.
Banks face various risks due to the dynamic nature of the modern financial markets and these risks prohibit the banks to operate to its optimum. One such risk is credit risk that includes default and portfolio risk. The total loans and advances form a major chunk of banks'' assets, and failure to maintain the quality of such assets has proven to be disastrous for the banks as well as to the economy. In long run the success of banking sector depend on how well the bank can manage the credit risk and maintain its quality of assets. Therefore, the extent of Non-Performing Loan (NPL) assumes critical importance for the overall stability of a bank. The level of NPL of a bank reflects the quality of assets, credit risk and efficiency in the allocation of financial resources for productive purposes. This paper establishes the nature and the extent of NPL in Bhutanese banks and analyze the causes of NPL and its consequences on the performances of the banks.
Banking sector is suffering a huge chunk of non-performing loan in Pakistan, Due to this profitability and survivals of banks are at risk in Pakistan. “A large number of banks in economies like Thailand, Indonesia, Japan and Mexico experienced a high level of non-performing loan and has faced a significant increase in credit risk during the financial and banking crisis. Due to these financial and economic crises many banks closed down their operations in Indonesia and Thailand (Ahmad & Arif, 2007)”. Keeping in consideration to increase in non-performing in Pakistan, study will explore the relationship between Credit Risk and performance of banking sector.By providing reliable data and evidences about the credit risk and its consequences on banks performance in Pakistan, it is clear that how this important factor non- performing loans (NPLs) is influencing the performance of the banks in Pakistan. It also contributes in addressing the problem and finding a research based solution to the problem of non-performing loans in Pakistani banking context. It also contributes efforts toward the financial risk management strategies and techniques.
Over the last years, the use of credit insurance has become even more vital since it also helped financial institutions reduce their risk-weighted assets by way of risk mitigation. Historically, credit insurance was a way to minimize the counterpart and country (political) risks; however, under Basel II and III provisions, it helps banks to optimize their capital adequacy as well. This qualitative research study elaborates the economis aspects, capital relief of European banks in addition to the risk mitigation funtion of credit insurance. The study is a real-life and professional business life driven so that business professionals, too, would benefit from this research study. The paper, based on the true experience of different bankers in Europe reports that credit insurance mostly accomplishes the targets of financial institutions in order to opmize their portfolio, reduce risk-weighted assets and relieve their capital. This study would help risk managers, business experts and any other involved parties in credit insurance, align with the business practices of other and similar institutions.
Over the years, financial institutions have faced difficulties for a number of reasons, but the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to credit defaults as seen in the large portfolio of nonperforming loans in the different banks in the world. Credit being the main earning asset of a bank, its default affects commercial banks' performance by reducing profits and increasing the costs of operation. Among the effects of credit default rated highly include: reduction of profits,increased costs of operation and the slowing down of economic growth. Outright default, exposure position and inability of customer to finance the debt due to eventualities not foreseen at the time of the contract are the major causes of Credit default. To mitigate this risk bank management should ensure that superior strategies for lending, managing and recovery of credit are up and running and must be continuously improved. This is a resourceful book for all financial Policy Makers,Bankers, Insurance firms and Scholars and Researchers as a reference point for further research and knowledge generation
This book discusses on the ‘Corporate Credit Risk of Indian Manufacturing Companies: Towards an Early Warning System’. Devised for the analysis of financial health of the Indian manufacturing firms, it aims to pave a path towards designing a EWS by identifying the essential variables and hence assess the credit worthiness of the firms and avert a default. Most of the research on bankruptcy or default is done for the developed nations whereas it’s meagre in India due to lack of data and proper bankruptcy laws. In the present study the popular and robust Z score model is developed for the listed manufacturing firms in India and then DEA is used to assess their technical efficiencies. The rating agencies can incorporate these technical efficiencies in their ratings methodologies. Finally the study looks into the impact of macroeconomic factors on the firms’ financial health. This book is meant for those who are interested in learning about the financial health of listed firms i.e. Banks, Financial Institutions and Investors, for those undertaking research in Credit risk, CRAs and for the policy makers.